What is the Neurological System?
Alpha 2 receptors bind both epinephrine and norepinephrine, thus reducing the effect of alpha 1 receptors to a certain extent. As is often the case with the human body, the sympathetic system is perfectly balanced by the parasympathetic division, which returns our system to normal following activation of the sympathetic division. Use of the pupil reflex to evaluate brain damage. Thermoreceptive nerve endings in your skin. The facial nerve travels through the internal acoustic meatus. Nicotine, Cocaine and Amphetamines Inhibitory drugs decrease post-synaptic transmission For example:
The Neurological Examination
Olfactory neurons have dendrites that are connected to fine hairs in the nose that react to odours. Gustatory sensations taste there are about taste buds, mostly on the tongue and a few in the throat. Taste buds contain gustatory cells which contain sensitive hair like processes. The retina of the eye converts light into nerve impulses which are transmitted to the optic nerve.
Retinoblastoma is a rare tumour in the cells of the retina. Sound waves cause fine hairs in the inner ear to vibrate generating nerve impulses. Equilibrium sense of balance the ear also contains receptors that give a sense of static equilibrium position of the head and dynamic equilibrium sudden movements. The nerves of the ANS activate the involuntary smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and some glands.
Here are some examples related to the Nervous System. For more details see Chapter 4: Understanding the Components of Medical Terminology. It can spread from the medulla part of the brain stem to the spine or to other parts of the body. Prognosis will depend on the child's age, how much of the tumour remains following surgery, and whether the cancer has metastasised.
Cerebellar astrocytoma arise in brain cells called astrocytes. Cerebellar astrocytoma is usually low grade slow growing and non metastatic cells , while Cerebral astrocytoma can be malignant. Brainstem gliomas are tumours arising in the mid brain, pons or medulla. They may grow rapidly or slowly, depending on the grade of the tumour, but overall have a less favourable prognosis compared to other tumours such as Cerebellar astrocytoma. Other brain tumours include: Primitive neuroectodermal tumour PNET , craniopharyngioma, intracranial germ cell tumour, pineal parenchymal tumour, and optic tract glioma.
Nervous System - Self Test questions. WebAnatomy, University of Minnesota Test your anatomy knowledge with these interactive questions. Pupil reflex — https: Analysis of correlations between body size and brain size in different animals. Identification of parts of the brain in a photograph, diagram or scan of the brain. To what extent should the views of the family members be given priority when making decisions in medical ethics? What criteria should be used to make ethical decisions?
Understanding of the underlying science is the basis for technological developments—the discovery that electrical stimulation in the auditory system can create a perception of sound resulted in the development of electrical hearing aids and ultimately cochlear implants.
Detection of chemicals in the air by the many different olfactory receptors. Watch TED talk on smell and olfactory receptors: Labelling a diagram of the structure of the human eye answers at the bottom.
Red-green colour-blindness as a variant of normal trichromatic vision. Annotation of a diagram of the retina to show the cell types and the direction in which light moves. Labelling a diagram of the structure of the human ear. Hearing test - http: Use of cochlear implants in deaf patients. Looking for patterns, trends and discrepancies—laboratory experiments and field investigations helped in the understanding of different types of behaviour and learning.
Analysis of data from invertebrate behaviour experiments in terms of the effect on chances of survival and reproduction. Withdrawal reflex of the hand from a painful stimulus. Drawing and labelling a diagram of a reflex arc for a pain withdrawal reflex.
Include the receptor cell, sensory neuron, relay neuron, motor neuron and effector. Big Bang Theory — Operant Conditioning - https: Good article - http: Is intuition a valid starting point for scientists?
Data logging using an electrocardiogram ECG sensor to analyse neuromuscular reflexes. Practice Questions Banded wrens Thryothorus pleurostictus are known to sing actively in defence of their territories during the breeding season. Males possess over twenty different song-types. When two males approach each other near a boundary they engage in counter-singing and some song-types will be shared. The following diagram shows the pattern of song-types used during an interaction between two males at their territorial boundary in the Guanacaste Conservation Area, Costa Rica.
The arrows indicate when both males sang identical song-types in succession. The interaction ended without a fight when the males retreated from the boundary. Describe the changes in the song-type pattern during the entire interaction. Deduce how a male banded wren can communicate aggressive behaviour. For one group labelled EscD the shock coincided with switching off the light, resulting in darkness in that compartment.
The training was repeated for five sessions. The graphs below show the mean results for the two groups. Zielinski and Savonenko, , Acta Neurobiol. Communication between neurons can be altered through the manipulation of the release and reception of chemical messengers. Assessing risks associated with scientific research—patient advocates will often press for the speeding up of drug approval processes, encouraging more tolerance of risk.
Glutamate is a main excitatory neurotransmitter and GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter. Slow-acting neurotransmitters have a role in memory and learning As above, they can cause the release of secondary messengers.
These messengers can increase synaptic transmission by increasing the number of receptors in the membrane or modify these receptors to increase the rate of ion movement into the neuron when the neurotransmitter binds Secondary messengers can persist for days, causing long term potentiation LTP This may be essential for synaptic plasticity necessary for memory and learning The learning of new skills has been linked to the formation of new synapses in the hippocampus Memory is long term and requires the synthesis of proteins The proteins change the form and function of the synapse, resulting in a memory.
Effects on the nervous system of two stimulants and two sedatives. THC Tetrahydrocannabinol Present in cannabis Binds to cannabinoid pre-synaptic receptors in various parts of the brain example cerebellum and cerebrum , preventing the release of neurotransmitters that would cause the excitation of the post synaptic neuron THC also binds to GABA receptors in the reward pathway decreasing the release of GABA Less GABA released means there is less inhibition of dopamine and therefore more dopamine is released gives the user feeling of euphoria and pleasure Good interactive link on synapses and drugs: Endorphins can act as painkillers.
The effect of anesthetics on awareness. Brain and Addiction https: Evaluation of data showing the impact of MDMA ecstasy on serotonin and dopamine metabolism in the brain. There are many cultures that use drugs to enhance rituals or religious experiences. Natural selection favours specific types of behaviour. Testing a hypothesis—experiments to test hypotheses on the migratory behaviour of blackcaps have been carried out. Migratory behaviour in blackcaps as an example of the genetic basis of behaviour and its change by natural selection.
Blood sharing in vampire bats as an example of the development of altruistic behaviour by natural selection. The Sympathetic System — Stimulates cell and organ function. The sympathetic system is activated by a perceived danger or threat, very strong emotions such as fear, anger or excitement, by intense exercise, or when under large amounts of stress.
Basically, anything the body perceives as an emergency will trigger a protective response. The Parasympathetic System — Inhibits cell and organ function. The parasympathetic system slows down heart rate, resumes digestion, and increases relaxation throughout the body. If blood pressure is too high or blood carbon dioxide levels are too low, this system slows the heart down and lowers its output.
What Causes an Unhealthy Neurological System? An unhealthy neurological system may be caused by: This may lead to certain levels of neurological impairment such as mental confusion, loss of concentration, Depression and Anxiety , to name a few. Chronic and Acute Infections It is suggested that an overgrowth of Candida yeast may be responsible for a variety of neurological symptoms, including Brain Fog and Depression , due to the multitude of toxins that this fungus gives off.
Other illnesses that affect neurological function include bacterial and viral meningitis inflammation of the tissues surrounding the spinal cord and the brain. Exposure to Pesticides — A study conducted on vineyard workers showed that long-term, low-level exposures to pesticides have measurable effects on cognition.
Stress — Chronic stress and negative thinking can wreak havoc on the neurological system. Over time, chronic stress can trigger mental disorders such as Anxiety and Depression , among others. Heavy Metal Toxicity — Heavy metals such as aluminum, lead, and mercury accumulate in the brain.
Listed below are key dietary recommendations: Omega-3 essential fatty acids — Studies have shown that countries like Japan that eat a diet rich in omega 3 have lower rates of major depression. Obtain your omega-3 from different sources. While fish is an important source of omega-3, limit your intake since it may be contaminated with mercury a neurotoxin that accumulates in the brain. Also, choose wild fish rather than farm-raised fish. Wild fish obtain omega-3 naturally through their diet.
Fish farms, on the other hand, feed their fish land-based foods that may contain little or no omega As a result, farm-raised fish may have little or no omega Other foods high in omega-3 to consider adding to your diet are: Walnuts Flax meal Fish oil Tryptophan — This essential amino acid can be obtained from the diet or through supplementing with tryptophan. Consider adding foods to your diet that contain tryptophan: Turkey Beans Whole grain rice Hummus Lentils Hazelnuts Sesame and sunflower seeds Whole Foods — Fill your diet with nutrient-rich whole foods such as organic nuts and seeds , bright berries, and dark green leafy vegetables such as kale, spinach, parsley, cilantro, and oregano.