How the Immune System Works with a Diagram

Female Reproductive System Anatomy

Female Reproductive System
Enzymes are like tiny biochemical machines that disassemble large macromolecules like proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids into their smaller components. Lymph trunk Lymph Lymphangion. This causes an overgrowth of Clostridium difficile , which results in pseudomembranous colitis, a rather painful condition wherein the inner lining of the intestine cracks and bleeds. The design of immunizing vaccines hinges on the specificity and cross-reactivity of these bonds. Memory T cells are programmed to recognize and respond to a pathogen once it has invaded and been repelled. Leave this field blank.

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Right lymphatic duct

The gallbladder is used to store and recycle excess bile from the small intestine so that it can be reused for the digestion of subsequent meals. The pancreas is a large gland located just inferior and posterior to the stomach.

The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine to complete the chemical digestion of foods. The large intestine is a long, thick tube about 2. It is located just inferior to the stomach and wraps around the superior and lateral border of the small intestine.

The large intestine absorbs water and contains many symbiotic bacteria that aid in the breaking down of wastes to extract some small amounts of nutrients. Feces in the large intestine exit the body through the anal canal.

The digestive system is responsible for taking whole foods and turning them into energy and nutrients to allow the body to function, grow, and repair itself. The six primary processes of the digestive system include:. The first function of the digestive system is ingestion, or the intake of food.

The mouth is responsible for this function, as it is the orifice through which all food enters the body. The mouth and stomach are also responsible for the storage of food as it is waiting to be digested. This storage capacity allows the body to eat only a few times each day and to ingest more food than it can process at one time.

In the course of a day, the digestive system secretes around 7 liters of fluids. These fluids include saliva, mucus, hydrochloric acid, enzymes, and bile. Saliva moistens dry food and contains salivary amylase, a digestive enzyme that begins the digestion of carbohydrates.

Mucus serves as a protective barrier and lubricant inside of the GI tract. Hydrochloric acid helps to digest food chemically and protects the body by killing bacteria present in our food. Enzymes are like tiny biochemical machines that disassemble large macromolecules like proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids into their smaller components.

Finally, bile is used to emulsify large masses of lipids into tiny globules for easy digestion. Digestion is the process of turning large pieces of food into its component chemicals. Mechanical digestion is the physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces.

This mode of digestion begins with the chewing of food by the teeth and is continued through the muscular mixing of food by the stomach and intestines. Footer Widget 1 Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Proin semper ultrices tortor quis sodales. Proin scelerisque porttitor tellus, vel dignissim tortor varius quis. Proin diam eros, lobortis sit amet viverra id, eleifend ut tellus. Vivamus sed lacus augue. Footer Widget 2 Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit.

Footer Widget 3 Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. The ovaries are a pair of small glands about the size and shape of almonds, located on the left and right sides of the pelvic body cavity lateral to the superior portion of the uterus. Each month during ovulation, a mature ovum is released. The ovum travels from the ovary to the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized before reaching the uterus.

The fallopian tubes are a pair of muscular tubes that extend from the left and right superior corners of the uterus to the edge of the ovaries. The fallopian tubes end in a funnel-shaped structure called the infundibulum, which is covered with small finger-like projections called fimbriae. The fimbriae swipe over the outside of the ovaries to pick up released ova and carry them into the infundibulum for transport to the uterus.

The inside of each fallopian tube is covered in cilia that work with the smooth muscle of the tube to carry the ovum to the uterus. The uterus is a hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ located posterior and superior to the urinary bladder. Connected to the two fallopian tubes on its superior end and to the vagina via the cervix on its inferior end, the uterus is also known as the womb, as it surrounds and supports the developing fetus during pregnancy.

The inner lining of the uterus, known as the endometrium , provides support to the embryo during early development. The visceral muscles of the uterus contract during childbirth to push the fetus through the birth canal. The vagina is an elastic, muscular tube that connects the cervix of the uterus to the exterior of the body.

It is located inferior to the uterus and posterior to the urinary bladder. The vagina functions as the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse and carries sperm to the uterus and fallopian tubes. It also serves as the birth canal by stretching to allow delivery of the fetus during childbirth. During menstruation, the menstrual flow exits the body via the vagina.

The vulva is the collective name for the external female genitalia located in the pubic region of the body.

The vulva surrounds the external ends of the urethral opening and the vagina and includes the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, and clitoris. The mons pubis, or pubic mound, is a raised layer of adipose tissue between the skin and the pubic bone that provides cushioning to the vulva.

The inferior portion of the mons pubis splits into left and right halves called the labia majora.

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