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Excessive body weight is associated with various diseases and conditions , particularly cardiovascular diseases , diabetes mellitus type 2 , obstructive sleep apnea , certain types of cancer , osteoarthritis , [2] and asthma. Obesity is mostly preventable through a combination of social changes and personal choices. Retrieved August 12, Some Bob Evans sausage links recalled, may contain plastic The Agriculture Department says Bob Evans Farms is recalling nearly 47, pounds of pork sausage links because they might contain pieces of plastic. Formulation and Treatment in Clinical Health Psychology. Cardiovascular diseases , type 2 diabetes , obstructive sleep apnea , certain types of cancer , osteoarthritis , depression [2] [3]. Archived from the original on September 18,

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The arcuate nucleus contains two distinct groups of neurons. Both groups of arcuate nucleus neurons are regulated in part by leptin. Thus a deficiency in leptin signaling, either via leptin deficiency or leptin resistance, leads to overfeeding and may account for some genetic and acquired forms of obesity. The World Health Organization WHO predicts that overweight and obesity may soon replace more traditional public health concerns such as undernutrition and infectious diseases as the most significant cause of poor health.

Solutions look at changing the factors that cause excess food energy consumption and inhibit physical activity. Efforts include federally reimbursed meal programs in schools, limiting direct junk food marketing to children, [] and decreasing access to sugar-sweetened beverages in schools.

Many organizations have published reports pertaining to obesity. This is a comprehensive evidence-based guideline to address the management and prevention of overweight and obesity in adults and children. Comprehensive approaches are being looked at to address the rising rates of obesity. The Obesity Policy Action OPA framework divides measure into 'upstream' policies, 'midstream' policies, 'downstream' policies.

The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. In the short-term low carbohydrate diets appear better than low fat diets for weight loss. Five medications have evidence for long-term use orlistat , lorcaserin , liraglutide , phentermine—topiramate , and naltrexone—bupropion. The most effective treatment for obesity is bariatric surgery. In earlier historical periods obesity was rare, and achievable only by a small elite, although already recognised as a problem for health.

But as prosperity increased in the Early Modern period , it affected increasingly larger groups of the population. In the WHO formally recognized obesity as a global epidemic. Once considered a problem only of high-income countries, obesity rates are rising worldwide and affecting both the developed and developing world.

Obesity is from the Latin obesitas , which means "stout, fat, or plump". Ancient Greek medicine recognizes obesity as a medical disorder, and records that the Ancient Egyptians saw it in the same way. It was common among high officials in Europe in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance [] as well as in Ancient East Asian civilizations.

With the onset of the Industrial Revolution it was realized that the military and economic might of nations were dependent on both the body size and strength of their soldiers and workers. During the 20th century, as populations reached their genetic potential for height, weight began increasing much more than height, resulting in obesity. Many cultures throughout history have viewed obesity as the result of a character flaw. The obesus or fat character in Ancient Greek comedy was a glutton and figure of mockery.

During Christian times the food was viewed as a gateway to the sins of sloth and lust. People of all ages can face social stigmatization, and may be targeted by bullies or shunned by their peers. The weight that is viewed as an ideal has become lower since the s. In Britain, the weight at which people considered themselves to be overweight was significantly higher in than in Obesity is still seen as a sign of wealth and well-being in many parts of Africa.

This has become particularly common since the HIV epidemic began. Some attribute the Venus figurines to the tendency to emphasize fertility while others feel they represent "fatness" in the people of the time.

This continued through much of Christian European history, with only those of low socioeconomic status being depicted as obese. These women, however, still maintained the "hourglass" shape with its relationship to fertility. After centuries of obesity being synonymous with wealth and social status, slimness began to be seen as the desirable standard. In addition to its health impacts, obesity leads to many problems including disadvantages in employment [] [] and increased business costs.

These effects are felt by all levels of society from individuals, to corporations, to governments. Obesity prevention programs have been found to reduce the cost of treating obesity-related disease. However, the longer people live, the more medical costs they incur. Researchers, therefore, conclude that reducing obesity may improve the public's health, but it is unlikely to reduce overall health spending.

Obesity can lead to social stigmatization and disadvantages in employment. The most common injuries in this group were due to falls and lifting, thus affecting the lower extremities, wrists or hands, and backs. Some research shows that obese people are less likely to be hired for a job and are less likely to be promoted.

Specific industries, such as the airline, healthcare and food industries, have special concerns. Due to rising rates of obesity, airlines face higher fuel costs and pressures to increase seating width. With the American Medical Association 's classification of obesity as a chronic disease, [16] it is thought that health insurance companies will more likely pay for obesity treatment, counseling and surgery, and the cost of research and development of fat treatment pills or gene therapy treatments should be more affordable if insurers help to subsidize their cost.

In , The European Court of Justice ruled that morbid obesity is a disability. The Court said that if an employee's obesity prevents him from "full and effective participation of that person in professional life on an equal basis with other workers", then it shall be considered a disability and that firing someone on such grounds is discriminatory.

The principal goal of the fat acceptance movement is to decrease discrimination against people who are overweight and obese. A number of organizations exist that promote the acceptance of obesity. It has more of a global orientation and describes its mission as promoting size acceptance and helping to end weight-based discrimination.

The American legal system, however, has decided that the potential public health costs exceed the benefits of extending this anti-discrimination law to cover obesity. In the New York Times published an article on the Global Energy Balance Network , a nonprofit founded in that advocated for people to focus on increasing exercise rather than reducing calorie intake to avoid obesity and to be healthy. Hand and Steven N. The healthy BMI range varies with the age and sex of the child.

As with obesity in adults, many factors contribute to the rising rates of childhood obesity. Changing diet and decreasing physical activity are believed to be the two most important causes for the recent increase in the incidence of child obesity.

Obesity in pets is common in many countries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the medical journal, see Obesity journal. Relative risk of death over 10 years for white men left and women right who have never smoked in the United States by BMI. Sedentary lifestyle and Exercise trends. Social determinants of obesity. World obesity prevalence among males left and females right in Percentage of the population either overweight or obese by year.

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Center for disease control and prevention. Retrieved 6 April The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Formulation and Treatment in Clinical Health Psychology. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. American Journal of Medical Genetics. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

European clinical practice guidelines" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 26 April International Journal of Obesity. Annals of Internal Medicine. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.

The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. Current Pain and Headache Reports Review. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports Review.

European Journal of Nutrition. Public Health Nutrition Research Support. Asian Journal of Andrology. Neurourology and Urodynamics Review. The Journal of Urology Review. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Review. Seminars in Dialysis Review. Preventive Services Task Force June Florence's floodwaters may carry hidden dangers Floodwaters carry hidden risks that cause electrocution, injury and infection. Kids, teen, college student mental health problems on the rise A new WHO report adds to a wave of studies about teen mental health problems.

Las Vegas shooting survivors, health care providers reunite Survivors of the mass shooting in Las Vegas have reunited with the doctors and nurses who cared for them at an area hospital after the massacre. New US survey shows some progress against opioid crisis A U. Lawsuit aims to block Trump 'short-term' health plans Patient advocates sue to block Trump administration's 'short-term' health insurance plans.

FDA plans meeting to discuss safety data on breast implants U. Zimbabwe's government criticized over cholera outbreak Zimbabwe's government criticized over cholera outbreak that has killed 25, spread from capital. Some Bob Evans sausage links recalled, may contain plastic The Agriculture Department says Bob Evans Farms is recalling nearly 47, pounds of pork sausage links because they might contain pieces of plastic.

No progress as US, Cuba meet on mysterious 'health attacks' Cuba said Thursday the United States is continuing to withhold important information that could help in the investigation into mysterious incidents Funds for Florida health insurance helpers cut by millions The Trump administration has slashed funding for the second year in a row for counselors who help consumers sign up for health insurance through the Long-term effects of ADHD?

Study links disorder to Parkinson's, but don't be alarmed It's the first study to relate the conditions, but it doesn't prove causality. Inside the effort to protect the elderly Perhaps no other population is as vulnerable during a hurricane as older adults. Genetically modified mosquitoes could eradicate malaria Since only female mosquitoes bite and transmit malaria, these lab-grown sterile male insects will not be able to multiply or spread the disease.

Amazing advancements against cancer, but not everyone benefits More people have cancer than ever before, but because of advancements in treatment, those people are living longer.

Dozens of high fever deaths cause panic in northern India Health authorities are rushing medical supplies to northern towns and villages. FDA calls e-cigarettes 'an epidemic' among minors The use of e-cigarettes has become an "epidemic" among children, according to the U. Food and Drug Administration. How to navigate the fertility apps, wearables that promise to help you get pregnant There are more than apps on the market for women tracking fertility.

Nevada prisons drug buyer knew firms opposed execution use Nevada's prisons pharmacy chief says she ordered and obtained lethal injection drugs this year despite knowing drug manufacturers didn't want their FDA calls e-cigarettes 'an epidemic' among minors, cracks down on retailers The agency issued fines against retailers selling the e-cigs to minors.

Lab test may identify dangerous gene mutations, study finds Scientists say a lab test may help determine whether specific genetic abnormalities are likely to make people sick. Retrieved June 16, A Profile in Courage". Jennifer Aniston to guest star on Dirt.

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Retrieved August 1, Retrieved September 18, Entertainment Weekly and Time Inc. Retrieved 29 August Jennifer Aniston set to join Best Actress race for new movie Cake". New York Daily News. What a layered 'Cake ' ". Retrieved 24 August Retrieved November 20, Retrieved July 31, Archived from the original on August 29, Advertising; Haven't heard of Windows 95?

Where have you been hiding? Retrieved May 16, A New Film Company". Retrieved May 15, Archived from the original on March 1, Retrieved December 21, Archived from the original on July 26, Retrieved July 22, Archived from the original on March 13, Retrieved March 10, Archived from the original on June 21, Retrieved June 20, Retrieved October 24, The new face of Emirates airline?

Retrieved August 13, Emirates releases new advert with actress for its A service". Archived from the original on February 15, Retrieved February 14, Aniston Gets Some Gay Lovin ' ".

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Retrieved 6 May Archived from the original on July 9, Archived from the original on September 14, Retrieved June 18, The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 24, Retrieved August 12, Retrieved 8 May Retrieved 29 April Jennifer Aniston is a long-time yoga practitioner — she's appeared in a Yogalosophy DVD and even given Oprah a yoga mat — and she's one of the most famous devotees of TM.

The year-old actress has said of her yoga routine, 'If I don't do it then my spirit sort of goes. Transcendental meditation keeps me looking good". Archived from the original on Retrieved February 23,

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