Prenatal Development: Growth, Differentiation, and Their Disturbances
All pounds of him! During this phase, neurons are stimulated by neurotransmitters causing their cell membane to begin to depolarize [top]. The largest organ in the body, which may be surprising to most, is in fact the skin. A retinochoroiditis, inflammation of the retina and choroid thick vascular area at back of eye , is another clinical manifestation of Toxoplasma infection. Once carbon dioxide and water are present in the leaf, one condition for photosynthesis is needed, that is light.
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The most frequent reason for long calving intervals is what? Abnormal heat cycle length, lack of heat periods, or a cow in constant heat could be caused by what? What is embryo transfer? What do the letters IVF stand for? A technique where sperm fertilizes the ovum in a laboratory dish, grows into a young embryo in the lab and is then transferred to a cow is called what?
What is the process of shedding a follicle by the ovary? Your vet tells you that your heifer is barren, what does he mean? Two individuals develop from one fertilized egg and are genetically alike, what term is used to describe them? In reproduction, what do the initials FSH stand for? What is the hormone that causes ovulation?
LH lutelyzing hormone What does it mean when a cow is in her first trimester? What does the word gestation mean? In reproduction, what are the two gametes that unite to form an embryo? Calves are born about how many months after the cow is bred?
Name the female and male sex cell: Fertilization of the ova normally occurs in the: The hormone that stimulates testosterone production is: What female hormone causes follicles to begin development? When artificially inseminating a cow, the technician should deposit the semen: What is the ideal calving interval for mature cows?
In the female reproductive tract, what do prostaglandins regress? What is the sex chromosome combination of a male calf? XY Back to top Nutrition 1.
The small intestine receives secretions from what two organs, which aid in digestion? What elements are carbohydrates composed of? What four elements are proteins primarily composed of? What is the category of minerals needed in small amounts called? What is the minimal NDF for lactating cow rations? What does NDF stand for? Neutral Detergent Fiber 9. What is the minimal ADF found in lactating cow rations?
What does ADF stand for? What percent of the day does a cow chew cud? What part of the stomach is known as the honeycomb? Which vitamin is used to prevent white muscle disease? What vitamin is used to prevent an off flavor in milk? What mineral is Fe a symbol for? How many quarts of saliva does a cow produce each day? What vitamin is supplemented to cows in the largest amounts? What does a cow do to release gas from the rumen? Which Vitamin is known as B3? What vitamin is known as B1?
What is the most common nutrient? What are the fat-soluble vitamins? What are plant-eating animals called? What does DMI stand for? What mineral is Vitamin E associated with? What is the sunshine vitamin? Fat has how much more energy than carbohydrates? What happens to the NDF content of alfalfa as it matures? NDF content increases What are the three major categories of carbohydrates that exist in feed? Structures carbohydrates fiber Which measure of fiber is used to predict the digestibility or energy content of feedstuff?
Approximately, what percent of dietary crude protein is broken down by microbial digestion in the rumen? How many pounds are in a bushel of soybeans? What is the best measurement of total fiber? What measurement of fiber determines feed intake? When using the body conditioning score, what score is ideal for a cow when she freshens?
What is a good source of carotene to provide Vitamin A to cattle? What is the main function of the microbial population in the rumen? What stomach compartment is the largest? What gasses are given off in the rumen? What is another word for belching? If gasses are not belched up, what would happen? The omasum is also called what? What is the function of the omasum? What has happened when a cow has a twisted stomach?
What is another name for a twisted stomach? What acid is produced in the abomasum? The small intestine is composed of three sections, name them. In the small intestine, nutrients are absorbed through what fingerlike projections? Where do the nutrients go after being absorbed thru the villi?
What is the last segment of tract that undigested feedstuffs pass through? What is the primary digestive activity that occurs in the large intestine? What does NPN stand for? What are some sources of NPN? What stomach compartments are not developed in a newborn calf? During nursing of a newborn calf, milk bypasses the rumen via the esophageal groove, also known as what? What are the six major nutrients for dairy cattle?
Carbohydrates are broken down into three categories, name them. What is a good source of starch in a cows diet?
Commonly fed sources of fat include what? What does CP stand for relative to nutrition? What does DIP stand for relative to nutrition? The portion of feed protein broken down to ammonia or amino acids by the rumen microbes is what?
What does SIP stand for relative to nutrition? What is the portion of DIP that is rapidly degraded in the rumen called? What does UIP stand for relative to nutrition? The portion of feed protein that is not degraded by the rumen microbes and remains intact as it passes through the rumen to be digested and absorbed further as it moves through the digestive tract is called what?
UIP or undegradable intake protein Name the two groups of vitamins. Name the water soluble vitamins. Vitamins B and C Name the fat soluble vitamins. Vitamins A, D, E and K An animal short in this vitamin has blindness, is weak and has reproductive problems. What is Vitamin B complex necessary for?
How many teeth does a mature cow have? What class of nutrients are the highest in energy? Soybean meal is generally added to dairy rations to supply what nutrient?
If properly fed to dairy cattle, urea supplies a readily available and potent source of what chemical element? How many teeth does a cow have on the front of the upper jaw? Name five annual live one year plants used as forages for dairy cattle. Name four forages that can be used as silages.
Which nutrient is made up of amino acids? What is the function of Vitamin A? Columbia University Gastroenterology Web page [On-line information]. A Guide for Children and Their Families. Gliadin antibodies, endomysial antibodies. American Family Physician [On-line information].
PDF available for download at http: Future Therapeutic Options for Celiac Disease. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. Available online through http: Celiac Sprue Association [On-line information]. Alessio Fasano May 24, National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Study Blood markers for the disease rose from 1 in every individuals in to 1 in by MedlinePlus HealthDay [On-line information].
Updated June Treatment of Celiac Disease. The Spectrum of Celiac Disease: Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects and Treatment. Medscape from Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. Medscape from Curr Opin Gastroenterol.
Updated December Updated September 2. Gastroenterology Volume , Issue 6 , Pages , December American College of Gastroenterology. Abstract available online at http: If your question relates to this web site and not to a specific lab test, please submit it via our Contact Us page instead. Celiac Disease Antibody Tests.
Send Us Your Feedback. Choose Topic At a Glance What is being tested? This article was last reviewed on September 30, This article was last modified on December 4, When To Get Tested? A blood sample drawn from a vein in your arm.
Looking for Test Results? Looking for Reference Ranges? What is being tested? Common tests for celiac disease include: Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody anti-tTG , IgA: Anti-tTG, IgA is the most sensitive and specific blood test for celiac disease. Quantitative immunoglobulin A IgA: Other tests less commonly performed include: How is the sample collected for testing?
A blood sample is obtained by inserting a needle into a vein in the arm. Is any test preparation needed to ensure the quality of the sample? How is it used? The most common tests include: It is the most sensitive and specific blood test for celiac disease and is the single test preferred by the American College of Gastroenterology, according to its guidelines, as well as the American Gastroenterology Association for the detection of celiac disease in those over the age of 2 years.
If the anti-tTG, IgA or IgG test is positive, then the test can also be used to monitor a person with celiac disease and to help evaluate the effectiveness of treatment; antibody levels should fall when gluten is removed from the diet. Although "tissue" is in the name of these tests, they are measured in the blood.
If a person has an IgA deficiency, then a test to detect the IgG class of autoantibodies may be ordered.
It may sometimes be ordered with or following an anti-tTG test, especially if anti-tTG is negative. If the anti-DGP test is positive, it may be used to monitor celiac disease. Test that are used less often include: The test is more difficult to do and interpret properly than anti-tTg so it is used less often. CBC complete blood count to look for anemia ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate to evaluate inflammation CRP C-Reactive protein to evaluate inflammation CMP comprehensive metabolic panel to determine electrolyte, protein, and calcium levels, and to verify the status of the kidney and liver Vitamin D and B12 and folate to measure vitamin deficiencies Iron , iron binding capacity or transferrin , and ferritin to detect iron deficiency Stool fat , to help evaluate malabsorption Since those with celiac disease may also experience conditions such as lactose intolerance, celiac tests may be done in conjunction with other intolerance and allergy testing.
When is it ordered? Gastrointestinal signs and symptoms may include: Abdominal pain and distension Blood stool Chronic diarrhea or constipation Flatulence Greasy, foul-smelling stools Vomiting Other signs and symptoms may include: Gastrointestinal symptoms Delayed development Short stature Failure to thrive Many people with celiac disease have dermatitis herpetiformis, a disease that causes itchy blisters on the skin.
What does the test result mean? Is there anything else I should know? What is the difference between celiac disease and an allergy to wheat and other grains? The top two chambers or auricles receive the blood from the veins and pass it into the strong muscular bottom chambers called the ventricles. Oxygen depleted blood from the body enters the right auricle, where it is then pumped into the right ventricle leaving by two pulmonary arteries that deliver the still un-oxygenated blood to the lungs.
Oxygenated blood from the lungs is then returned through the pulmonary veins to the left auricle, where it is pumped to the left ventricle and finally out through the main artery, the aorta, to be transported around the body.
If the lungs are damaged by disease such as pneumonia, they cannot oxygenate the blood efficiently, the tissues become starved of oxygen and cannot function properly. When the pig walks or runs its skin may then become blue and it has difficulty breathing. Chronic pneumonia may also hold back the blood supply causing congestion and heart problems.
Arteries are the muscular tubes that carry the blood away from the heart. These branch off into smaller arteries like the branch of a tree eventually becoming very fine arterioles. The arterioles branch further into microscopic tubes called capillaries which exchange fluid through their walls. This enables the cells of the body to receive both oxygen and nutrients and eliminate carbon dioxide. The capillaries then combine to form first small veins, which in turn lead to larger ones.
The blood now contains carbon dioxide and reduced levels of oxygen and returns to the heart via the anterior and posterior vena cava to recommence its circulation around the lung. There is an important subsidiary circulatory system called the hepatic i. You will see in Fig. They keep branching until they form capillaries which then join together to form the portal vein which carries the blood to the liver.
There the portal vein breaks up into another capillary-type network, where the blood comes into direct contact with the liver cells. The vessels then join together again to form the hepatic veins which discharge the blood into the posterior vena cava. The blood from the intestines carries nutrients from the food eaten and also sometimes harmful substances toxins. The liver cells are able to modify some of the nutrients for use elsewhere and also to store some.
They also detoxify harmful substances. The liver is supplied with oxygen via a separate artery, the hepatic artery.
The internal linings of the heart are covered by a smooth shiny tissue called the endocardium. The rate of contraction is known as the pulse rate. This can be felt either at the base of the ear or under the tail and varies from beats per minute in the young piglet to 70 in the adult.
The blood consists of two main parts, a fluid called plasma and cells. Nutrients such as proteins, sugars and fats are circulated throughout the body in the plasma and waste products are collected to be detoxified in the liver and excreted via the kidneys.
The plasma also carries hormones which are produced in one part of the body and act on another. It also carries antibodies to combat infection. The plasma also supports red blood cells erythrocytes which contain the substance haemoglobin whose main function is to transport oxygen around the body and bring back carbon dioxide to be expelled from the lungs. The next largest group in the plasma are the white cells leucocytes which are the first line of defence against infectious agents.
The third type of cells are blood platelets. These are really small fragments of cells which are associated with the clotting mechanisms of blood. When blood clots the liquid that remains outside the clot is serum and this contains the antibodies.
Serum may be used to inject into pigs to provide an immediate source of immunity. The causes of anemia include: Bowel hemorrhage proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy, fungal toxins, acute bowel infection associated with E. Damage to bone marrow. This is a blood borne bacterium that can destroy red blood cells. Gastric ulcers and bleeding - or any other cause of haemorrhage. Iron, copper or vitamin deficiencies. Tissues begin to die after a few minutes. The body responds by producing an antibody.
It is used by injection to give an immediate temporary immunity. These allow water oxygen and nutrients to diffuse out to the tissues. Endocarditis is the end result of the invasion of this tissue by bacteria, in particular erysipelothrix which causes erysipelas and streptococci. Both organisms often cause growths on the heart valves called valvular endocarditis.
This makes the valves leaky and less effective. In the normal pig there are approximately 7 million per mm3. They are called gamma globulins. It is often seen in bacterial infections and shock reactions. Common in newborn piglets. The granulocytes contain granules in the cell and depending on how they stain they are called neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils. Neutrophils engulf bacteria phagocytosis , eosinophils increase in chronic disease particularly parasitic disease.
Basophils produce a substance called histamine during allergic reactions. Agranulocytes consist of monocytes and lymphocytes. It is similar to plasma. They are of two types, T and B. The total leucocytes in a normal pig are approximately 15, per mm3 and numbers increase markedly with bacterial infections. However in some viral diseases their numbers can be significantly reduced.
See granulocytes and monocytes. When they migrate into tissues they become localised tissue macrophages. Any scientific term ending with the term "itis" implies inflammation. Inflammation is the body's response to tissue damage and is associated with swelling, poor circulation, reddening, pressure and pain. Diseases causing myocarditis include streptococcal infections, certain virus infections and deficiencies of Vitamin E or iron.
Poisons such as selenium and monensin and the porcine stress syndrome can also cause marked changes to heart muscle. Common in the udder of the newly farrowed sow.
It is the vehicle by which oxygen is carried around the body. Pericarditis occurs as a result of infectious agents which cause respiratory diseases. These include pasteurella, mycoplasma, haemophilus, actinobacillus, streptococci and salmonella bacteria and viruses such as flu and porcine respiratory reproductive virus.
It contains large quantities of antibodies which can be used in the laboratory to test for evidence of exposure to diseases or in the field to provide temporary quick protection.
The respiratory system of the pig commences at the nostrils which lead into two nasal passages. These contain the dorsal and ventral turbinate bones. The ventral turbinates consist of four thin main bones, two on each side separated by a cartilaginous septum.
You can imagine these as four hair curlers placed inside the nose. The respiratory tract is lined by a smooth membrane called a mucous membrane because it is bathed in a sticky mucus. It is also covered with minute hair like structures which are able to brush the mucous across the surface by their wavy motion. They move the mucous in the nose, bronchial tree and trachea to the throat where it is swallowed.
The air breathed in through the nose is warmed by the turbinate bones which, because of their scroll-like shape, cause turbulence.
This throws out the larger of the small particles so that they stick to the mucus and are swept to the throat. The many branches of the bronchi as they decrease in diameter have a similar effect on more minute particles. The mucus elevator then carries them to the throat.
Only the vary smallest particles reach the alveoli where the alveolar macrophages engulf and remove them. Internally, the nasal passages open into the pharynx throat which is a common passage for food and air.
The food is swallowed down the oesophagus and the air is sucked into the larynx at the back of the throat. The larynx voice box controls inspiration and expiration.
It opens into the trachea which passes down into the chest where it divides into two bronchi. The bronchi branch into smaller bronchi and continue to branch gradually reducing in size to become bronchioles which terminate in very tiny air sacs called alveoli.
Oxygen is passed from the alveoli into the blood stream and carbon dioxide is passed out. A bacterium that produces a severe haemorrhagic and necrotising pneumonia with pleurisy.
They are destroyed by some viruses e. It can produce a severe pneumonia and consolidation with fibrinous pleurisy. Necrotising pneumonia occurs where the organism or its toxins kill lung tissue. An abscess may result. The shiny membranes that covers the surface of the lungs and the inside of the chest wall are called the pleura.
Infection or inflammation of these surfaces is called pleurisy. This together with pericarditis is very common in the pig and accounts for considerable loss through condemnation at slaughter. There are different types of pneumonia. A common example is pyaemia from tail biting. The carcase is condemned at slaughter. Some agents such as dust and gases may cause it but there is no long-term damage to the nose structure.
Sneezing always occurs with rhinitis. Influenza may cause a very heavy "barking" cough. Scrolls of bone inside the nasal passages. They warm and filter air as it passes through the nose.
The pig, like the human, experiences sound, sight, smell, taste, heat, cold, pain and balance. The way it responds to these assists us in the recognition of health and disease. For example, pain together with posture will often indicate a specific disease such as fracture of the vertebrae in the spine. Poor balance may be associated with infections of the middle part of the ear which is common in the young growing pig.
Likewise; the stockpersons own senses, particularly sight, smell and touch, are important in assessing whether the pig is healthy or ill and performing to its maximum biological efficiency. Sight for example allows the stockperson to observe the lying patterns, any abnormal excretions, signs of disease and unevenness of growth. It also helps to appreciate the quality of the environment.
Smell allows the stockperson to detect toxic gases, blocked drains, putrefying tissue and humidity, important points to consider in respiratory disease. He or she may also learn to detect the smell of scour. CT scan of a pigs cranium. This pig was to have oral surgery and had CT scan done prior to the surgery. CT scan images of craniofacial structures of a pig. A joint consists of the ends of two bones held together by ligaments and muscles, surrounded by a strong membrane and covered with smooth cartilage which form what are known as the articular surfaces.
Cartilage is dense material that is shock absorbing. The two articular surfaces are surrounded by a thin membrane called the joint capsule, the inner part of which is secretory and produces the joint fluid synovial fluid. The muscles and ligaments surrounding the joint are attached to the periosteum, the membrane which covers bone. Beneath the periosteum is the layer of compact bone that provides the strength of the structure. The centre is composed of a spongy mass containing marrow, from which many of the cells circulating in the blood are produced.
Near the ends of the bones are flattened areas of cartilage running at right angles to the bone called the epiphyseal plates, which by increasing their thickness cause bones to grow in length and width. The separation of bones at these plates is a common occurrence in leg weakness or osteochondrosis, particularly in young growing animals.
Bone is continually being broken down and rebuilt even in adults who have stopped growing. Thus they are able to repair fractures and respond to pressures. The main pressures are from muscle tone and exercise. Pigs that are able to exercise are likely to have stronger bones and joints than those that can not. Thus sows kept in total individual confinement have softer more brittle bones than sows kept in pens, yards, or outdoors.
In contrast, the articular cartilage when damaged and eroded cannot repair itself and is replaced by less effective fibrous tissue. This process can be progressive. Often found over the hock and elbow. It is commonly seen in the second parity female. The hind leg cannot be pulled backwards because the muscle attachment has been lost. This can occur as a result of damage, but in the pig most cases are caused by infection resulting in increased synovial fluid, inflammation of the synovial membrane, sometimes erosion of the articular cartilage and sometimes the formation of pus.
It is an extremely painful condition and makes the pig lame. It arises from trauma and damage to the solar surface of the hoof. The claw is often swollen. They form future bone. It occurs as part of the leg weakness syndrome and fractures can occur for example, in the ball and socket joint of the femur. In young growing animals separation of the plates in the vertebrae in the spine can result in spinal paralysis. It is also used to describe osteochondrosis.
It can occur after a septicaemia with organisms such as streptococci and erysipelas. It is often seen in the jaw bone after faulty teeth clipping. This can be associated with the loss of these minerals during lactation or their unavailability in the diet.
Most if not all modern pigs show such changes to bone structure at a microscopic level. Another term is leg weakness. This is extremely painful and can arise through trauma or occasionally infection. The most common causes are mechanical damage to knees in sucking pigs, swelling or leg calluses particularly on the hind legs, seen on many animals that are reared on concrete floors.
The kidneys are the organs in the body that filter out toxic and other waste materials from the bloodstream and maintain the body's fluid balance Fig. Blood passes from the aorta into the kidney where it is filtered and returned back into the blood stream. The toxic products are then passed with fluid into the ureters which lead down to the bladder.
Urine leaves the bladder via the urethra to the exterior. They are due to the crystallisation of mineral deposits and are not usually of any clinical significance. They are particularly striking in the kidneys of piglets which have died of TGE or greasy pig disease and are exaggerated in mercury poisoning.
The normal thickness of the bladder is approximately 10mm but in severe cases it may be up to 50mm. Haemorrhage often occurs and in such cases mortality in sows can be high. It can be associated with several different bacteria that are transmitted either via the bloodstream septicaemia or reflux from the bladder. Bacteria or their toxins can damage the delicate filtering mechanism of the kidney. Haemorrhage into the kidneys is common in the swine fevers.
Fungal mycotoxins may also damage the kidneys but do not cause inflammation. Sows with pH more than 7. Levels are elevated in kidney disease. Infection of this area together with the kidney is called pyelonephritis. It is a common disease in the sow. General Terminology Ad Libitum: Allowing pigs to eat an unlimited amount of feed. An agent that alleviates pain without loss of consciousness.
An agent that induces loss of feeling or sensation, especially the loss of pain sensation. Used during surgery or a painful procedure e.
Examples include lidocaine local anesthetic , isoflurane general anesthetic. How an animal is coping physically, physiologically and psychologically with the conditions in which it lives. Physically includes pain and injury; physiologically includes environmental or disease stressors; and psychologically includes stressors that affect the senses, especially those that result in fear, fighting, distress or stereotypic behaviours due to either frustration or boredom.
Animal welfare refers to the state of the animal; the treatment that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane treatment. Rails or bars included in farrowing crates that slow the speed at which a sow lies down, allowing the piglets to move and avoid being crushed.