Comparative Nitrogen Excretion

ORIGIN & EVOLUTION OF REPTILES

Origin of Reptiles
The reptilian nervous system contains the same basic part of the amphibian brain, but the reptile cerebrum and cerebellum are slightly larger. It is literally me, healing myself. Those from Procyon, who have been liberated, are trying to help. Excretion is an essential process in all forms of life. Archived from the original PDF on La Trobe University, Melbourne. The urine is stored in a large bladder before being voided, providing a reserve of water the animal can use when it comes on land.

Reptile Families

metabolism

Decreasing ventilation to maintain temperature and humidity is ill advised and frequently causes skin and respiratory disease. Although the incubation period of many reptile disorders is unknown, quarantine periods of 3—6 mo are recommended.

Owners should also be encouraged to keep detailed records of any changes in husbandry or nutrition, breeding activity, in-contact animals, disease outbreaks, health issues, and previous treatments. Species identification is essential to critically appraise captive diets see Table: Rodent-eating carnivores such as most snakes present few problems as long as the rodent is recognizable to the snake as food.

Obese rodents that have been frozen for prolonged periods may contain fewer nutrients. Feeding live rodents is not advised and is illegal in some countries because of the dangers of prey-induced trauma to sedate reptiles and the welfare implications for the live prey. Insectivorous reptiles can be well catered for with a variety of commercially available crickets, waxworms, tebos, locusts, mealworms, cockroaches, and flies.

Feeding insects a nutritional diet high in calcium and dusting the insects with a high-calcium reptile supplement immediately before feeding is required to prevent deficiencies. Providing herbivorous reptiles with a varied and nutritious diet can be difficult.

Foods with a high calcium: Human nutrient databases can be useful http: Calcium or vitamin D 3 deficiency generally due to poor quality lighting and low-calcium diets leads to secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism in insectivores and herbivores.

A variety of commercially available foods are available in moist, canned, and dry pellet forms. These may help provide a balanced diet, but they have not been critically evaluated.

P ratio of these commonly used items may make them less suitable as a staple component of a reptile diet. Although some species will drink from a water bowl, others will only imbibe water droplets on plants and décor. Poor water quality has been implicated as a cause of stomatitis in snakes.

Lack of appropriate water delivery has been implicated as a predisposing cause of renal disease in green iguanas. The advent of timer-controlled sprinkler systems makes regular water provision possible for many of these more fastidious drinkers. See also Nutrition in Reptiles.

The successful diagnosis and treatment of reptile diseases requires proper restraint and performance of a variety of clinical techniques. Although the principles are similar to those used for domestic animals, there are a number of reptile-specific peculiarities. It may be possible to observe calm specimens unrestrained, permitting an assessment of demeanor, locomotion, and obvious neurologic disorders such as lameness, paralysis, paresis, and head tilt. Observation of reptiles within their usual environment is particularly valuable and should be done whenever possible.

Nervous or aggressive species are best restrained at all times using towels, snake hooks, clear plastic containers, and restraint tubes. Careful consideration should be given to the safety of veterinary staff, zoo keepers, and private owners when dealing with large or otherwise potentially dangerous reptiles.

In many cases, chemical agents can expedite procedures and considerably reduce risks to both the reptile and human handlers. Given the improvements in reptile anesthesia, even manageable reptiles may be preferentially sedated or anesthetized for procedures that would otherwise take longer to accomplish and cause unnecessary stress or discomfort to the animal. It is possible that sedatives and anesthetics may affect clinical pathologic results, especially hematology.

The decision to examine a potentially dangerous reptile should be made with due regard to legislative and safety requirements. No species of Chelonia is legally considered dangerous, but several species eg, snapping turtles, Chelydra spp have a ferocious bite that makes them a formidable opponent. The risks of reptile-borne zoonoses are probably no greater than for other animal groups, and basic personal hygiene after handling reptile patients will minimize these risks.

The major zoonoses include Salmonella , Pseudomonas , Mycobacterium , Cryptosporidium , and Rickettsia spp and pentastomids arachnid lung parasites. Every reptile must be accurately weighed; an accurate weight is important to avoid deaths associated with drug overdose, particularly anesthetics and aminoglycosides. In addition, serial weight measurements permit an appraisal of growth and captive management, response to treatment, and disease progression or resolution.

Relating body weight to length and conformation gives an assessment of body condition. The snout-vent length of lizards and especially snakes is worth noting, because organ position and growth can be calculated as a result. Chelonian body condition relies on relating total weight to straight carapace length or body volume. Transillumination of the coelom using a cold light source can be used to visualize the internal structures of small lizards and snakes and is particularly useful to confirm suspected impactions and foreign bodies.

Care must be exercised if a hot light source eg, incandescent spotlight is used, because of the possibility of burns. Auscultation of reptiles is difficult and often unrewarding. Electronic stethoscopes with moistened gauze between the shell or scales and the stethoscope diaphragm can be helpful.

Doppler ultrasound is particularly useful to determine heart rates. The head of an aggressive snake or a snake of unknown disposition should be identified and restrained before opening the transportation bag to remove the animal. In general, the head of the snake is held behind the occiput using the thumb and middle finger to support the lateral aspects of the cranium. The index finger is placed on top of the head. The other hand is used to support the body. When dealing with large boids, a second, third, or even fourth handler is required to support the body during the examination.

It is usually safer and more convenient to sedate a large, pugnacious snake than to risk injury to the snake, owner, or staff. Nonvenomous species should be supported using one or two hands, depending on size. Nervous or aggressive snakes can be restrained using plexiglass tubes or sedated before examination.

The clinician should attempt to gauge muscle tone, proprioception, and mobility. Systemically ill serpents will often be limp, lack strength, and be less mobile. Head carriage, body posture, cloacal tone, proprioception, skin pinch, withdrawal, and papillary and righting reflexes can be used to assess neurologic function.

The entire integument, particularly the head and ventral scales, should be thoroughly examined for evidence of dysecdysis poor shedding , trauma, parasitism especially the common snake mite, Ophionyssus natricis , and ticks , and microbiologic infection. Any recently shed skin should also be examined, if available, for evidence of retained spectacles. The infraorbital pits where present and the nostrils should be free from discharges or retained skin. The eyes should be clear, unless ecdysis is imminent.

The spectacles covering the eyes should be smooth; any wrinkles usually indicate the presence of a retained spectacle.

The spectacle represents the transparent fused eyelids, and therefore the cornea is not normally exposed. The subspectacular fluid drains through a duct to the cranial roof of the maxilla. When blocked, the buildup of fluid causes a subspectacular swelling that often becomes infected.

Damage to the underlying cornea can result in panophthalmitis and ocular swelling. Retrobulbar abscessation results in protrusion of a normal-sized globe.

Other ocular pathologies can include uveitis, corneal lipidosis, and spectacular foreign bodies, including slivers of wood or other vivarium materials. Working from cranial to caudal, the head and body are palpated for swellings, wounds, and other abnormalities. The position of any internal anomalies, noted as a distance from the snout and interpreted as a percentage of snout-vent length, enables an assessment of possible organ involvement.

Recently fed snakes have a midbody swelling associated with the prey within the stomach; handling such individuals may well lead to regurgitation. Preovulatory follicles, eggs, feces, enlarged organs, and masses may be palpable. The cloaca can be examined using a dedicated otoscope or by digital palpation. Examination of the oral cavity is often left until last, because many snakes object to such manipulation.

However, even before the mouth is opened, the tongue should be seen flicking in and out of the labial notch with regularity. The mouth can be gently opened using a plastic or wooden spatula to permit an assessment of mucous membrane color and the buccal cavity for evidence of mucosal edema, ptyalism, hemorrhage, necrosis, and inspissated exudates.

White deposits may indicate uric acid deposition due to visceral gout. The pharynx and glottis should be examined for hemorrhage, foreign bodies, parasites, and discharges. Open-mouth breathing is a reliable indicator of severe respiratory compromise. The patency of the internal nares and the state of the polyphyodontic teeth should be noted. Lizards vary considerably in size, strength, and temperament; therefore, a variety of handling techniques are required. The tegus and monitors are renowned for their powerful bites, whereas other species, particularly the green iguana, are much more likely to use their claws and tail.

The main problem when handling small lizards is restraining them before they flee. The lizard should be transported in a securely tied cloth bag, so that the position of the lizard can be identified and the lizard held before the bag is opened. Large lizards are best restrained with the forelimbs held laterally against their coelom and the hindlimbs held laterally against the tail base.

The limbs should never be held over the spine, because fractures and dislocations can occur. Nervous lizards can be wrapped in a towel to aid restraint. Smaller lizards can be restrained around the pectoral girdle, holding the forelimbs against the coelom, although care is required not to impair respiratory movements.

A lizard should never be grasped by the tail, because many species can drop the tail autotomy in an attempt to evade capture. Restricting the vision of a lizard eg, a towel placed over the head is often the simplest way to facilitate handling and examination. A useful restraint technique for iguanid or monitor lizards uses the vasovagal response: This technique enables the mouth to be gently opened without the need for excessive force.

If possible, the lizard should be observed unrestrained to check for neurologic problems. Calm lizards may be permitted to walk around the examination table or on the floor. However, if in any doubt, the lizard should be placed in a large plastic enclosure to prevent escape during observation. The integument should be examined for parasites essentially mites and ticks and trauma due to fighting, mating, and burns.

Lizards tend to shed their skin in stages. Classically, dysecdysis and skin retention occurs around the digits and tail, causing ischemic necrosis. Extensive skin folding and tenting may indicate cachexia and dehydration. The head should be examined for abnormal conformation. The mouth can be opened using a blunt spatula or, in iguanas, by gently applying pressure to the dewlap. The buccal cavity and glottis should be examined thoroughly for evidence of trauma, infection, neoplasia, and edema, especially pharyngeal edema.

The internal extent of any rostral abrasions should be evaluated. The nostrils, eyes, and tympanic scales should be clean and free of discharges. The presence of dry, white material around the nostrils of some iguanid lizards is normal, because some species excrete salt through specialized nasal glands.

The rostrum should be examined for trauma, often caused by repeated attempts to escape from a poorly designed vivarium or to evade cagemates. The head, body, and limbs should be palpated for masses or swellings, which can be abscesses or metabolic bone disorders. Lizards suffering from severe hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia may exhibit periodic tremors and muscle fasciculations.

The coelomic body cavity of most lizards can be gently palpated. Food and fecal material within the GI tract, fat bodies, liver, ova, and eggs are usually appreciable.

Cystic calculi, fecoliths, enlarged kidneys, impactions, retained eggs or ova, and unusual coelomic masses may also be noted. The cloaca should be free from fecal staining, with visual and digital examination considered routine. In the green iguana, renomegaly can be appreciated by digital cloacal palpation. The high incidence of dystocia necessitates a need to identify gender during examination.

Many species of lizards are sexually dimorphic, although sexing juveniles can be difficult. Small to medium-sized tortoises are not difficult to handle, although their strength and uncooperative nature can hinder examination.

Patiently holding the tortoise with its head down will often persuade a shy individual to protrude the head from the shell. Placing the thumb and middle finger behind the occipital condyles prevents retraction of the head.

However, with larger species, it may be physically impossible to prevent a strong individual from pulling free. In such cases, sedation or use of a neuromuscular blocking agent may be necessary. The more aggressive aquatic species should be held at the rear of the carapace.

Some species eg, snapping turtles have long necks and an extremely powerful bite, necessitating great care.

Examination of the head should include the nostrils for any discharges and the beak for damage and overgrowth. The eyelids should be open and not obviously distended or inflamed, and the eyes should be clear and bright.

Conjunctivitis, corneal ulceration, and opacities are frequent presentations. The tympanic scales should be examined for signs of swelling associated with aural abscessation. Applying steady distractive pressure to the maxilla and mandible can open the mouth, and a mouth gag can be inserted to prevent closure. Aggressive chelonians, generally aquatic species, often threaten by open-mouth displays, which provide a good opportunity to examine the buccal cavity with minimal handling.

Mucus membrane coloration is normally pale; hyperemia may be associated with septicemia or toxemia. Icterus is rare but may occur with biliverdinemia due to severe liver disease. Pale deposits within the oral membranes may represent infection or urate tophi associated with visceral gout. The glottis is positioned at the back of the fleshy tongue and may be difficult to visualize; however, it is important to check for any inflammation and glottal discharges consistent with respiratory disease.

The integument should be free of damage. Subcutaneous swellings are usually abscesses. Aquatic species appear more susceptible to superficial and deep mycotic dermatitis, especially around the head, neck, and limbs.

The withdrawn limbs can be extended from the shell of small to medium-sized chelonians by applying steady traction. Because the coelomic space within the shell is restricted, gently forcing the hindlimbs into the shell will often lead to partial protrusion of the forelimbs and head, and vice versa.

A wedge or mouth gag can be used to prevent complete closure of a hinge. No chelonian will close a hinge on an extended limb. The integument should be examined for parasites particularly ticks and flies , dysecdysis, trauma, and infection that may arise due to predator attacks. Aggressive conflicts and courting trauma must also be considered in the communal environment. Limb fractures are less common in chelonians than in other reptiles, but when they do occur they are often associated with rough handling and secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism.

Focal subcutaneous swellings are usually abscesses, but grossly swollen joints or limbs are more often cases of fracture, osteomyelitis, or septic arthritis. The prefemoral fossae should be palpated with the chelonian held head-up. The shell should be examined for hardness, poor conformation, trauma, or infection. Soft, poorly mineralized shells are usually a result of secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism resulting from dietary deficiencies of calcium, excess phosphorus, or a lack of full-spectrum lighting.

Pyramiding of the shell appears to be more associated with inappropriate humidity than dietary imbalances. Shell infection may present as loosening and softening of the scutes with erythema, petechiae, purulent or caseous discharges, and a foul odor. Prolapses through the vent are obvious, but it is necessary to determine the structure s involved. Prolapses may include cloacal tissue, shell gland, colon, bladder, or phallus.

Internal examination using digital palpation and an endoscope is recommended. For some minor procedures eg, blood sampling , simple restraint may be all that is required. This can be enhanced by temporary immobilization techniques such as dorsal recumbency, reduced light intensity, or gentle ocular pressure vasovagal response.

For more invasive and painful procedures, general anesthesia must be used. Although considerable anatomic, physiologic, and pharmacologic differences exist between reptiles, some general guidelines are applicable. The following is therefore intended as a practical approach, rather than an exhaustive review of reptile anesthesia.

All reptiles should be hospitalized and maintained at their preferred optimal temperature zone at all times to minimize physiologic disturbance, facilitate recovery, and maintain immunocompetence. Although hypothermia will reduce movement, it does not provide analgesia and is therefore unacceptable as a means of anesthesia on welfare grounds. It can also dramatically affect the pharmacokinetics of any drugs administered and greatly prolong recovery.

A full clinical examination should be performed and the animal accurately weighed, although this may not be practical or possible in some cases. We are very very different than all the other races. Even the Andromedans do not understand how we could hate one minute and five minutes later be loving and snuggling. On one trip I was brought on board a ship, and Vasais was watching a monitor floating in the middle of the room that had an Earth news broadcast on it where a policeman had shot a black man and then had run up to him and tried to save his life.

To Vasais, there wasn't a clue why the policeman would do this. I couldn't explain it to him, because I don't even understand it. They are perplexed why we could be this incredible race, and have the abilities that we have, and be so hell-bent on destroying ourselves. Another time I came on board and Moraney was looking at Earth while monitoring all these meters analyzing the atmosphere of Earth. He looked very sad, and I asked him what the matter was.

They don't understand how we can just destroy our environment. It's not like we have another place to do. The Draconians are the force behind the repression of human populations everywhere in this galaxy instilling fear-based belief systems and restrictive hierarchies.

I asked Moraney about them, and he said,. I have witnessed a deep respect for this race. The Andromedans consider the Draconians the "ultimate warriors," in a negative sense. Their forefathers came to our universe from another separate universe or reality system. When this occurred, no one really knows. The Draconians themselves are not really clear on when they got here. The Draconians teach their masses that they were here in this universe first, before humans, and as such they are heirs to the universe and should be considered royalty.

They find disgust in the fact that humans do not recognize this as a truth. They have conquered many star systems and have genetically altered many of the life forms they have encountered. The area of the galaxy most densely populated with Draconian sub-races is in the Orion system, which is a huge system, and systems in Rigel and Capella. The mind set or consciousness of the majority of races in these systems is Service-to-Self, and as such they are always invading, subverting and manipulating less advanced races, and using their technology for control and domination.

This is a very old and ancient war, and the peace that does not exist is always being tested by these beings, who believe that fear rules, and love is weak. They believe that those they perceive to be less fortunate, in comparison to them, are meant to be slaves.

This belief system is promoted at birth in the reptilian races, wherein the mother, after giving birth, will abandon the offspring to fend for themselves. If they survive they are cared for by a warrior class that uses these children for games of combat and amusement. So, you can see that the reptilians are forever stuck in survival mode. This means they have no boundaries in what they will do to other beings. They are taught the Draconian version of the history of the ' Great Galactic War ', which teaches that humans are at fault for invading the universe, and that humans selfishly wanted the Draconian society to starve and struggle for the basic materials that would allow them to exist.

Now, there are some real similarities there. The expression 'Draconian thought' is an expression on our world. I would suggest you research that. The Rest of the Galactic Hierarchy We'll look at the positives. There are so many that want to help. For those of you who are "trekkies", you know the number one rule. You don't intervene with an evolving race unless you're asked. That happens to be a reality. They will not directly intervene - at least they are not supposed to - unless they are specifically asked to.

Those people who are contactees have a reincarnational lineage that leads back to many of these positive races, which is why it is not considered intervention. Now, in our galaxy there are many councils. I don't know everything about all those councils, but I do know about the Andromedan council, which is a group of beings from different star systems that come together and discuss what is going on in the galaxy.

It is not a political body. What they have been recently discussing is the tyranny in our future, years from now, because that affects everybody. Apparently what they have done, through time travel, is that they have been able to figure out where the significant shift in energy occurred that causes the tyranny years in our future.

They have traced it back to our solar system, and they have been able to further track it down to Earth, Earths moon and Mars. The very first meeting the Andromedan council had was to decide whether or not to directly intervene with what was going on here. According to Moraney, there were only 78 systems that met this first time.

Of those 78, just short of half decided that they wanted nothing to do with us at all, regardless of the problems. I think it is really important that you know why they wanted nothing to do with us. We are talking about star systems that are hundreds of millions of light years away from us. Even some who have never met us. They just knew the vibration of the planet reflected those on it. The reasons why they wanted nothing to do with us is that from their perspective, Earth humans don't respect themselves , each other or the planet.

What possibly can be the value of Earth humans? Fortunately, the majority of the council gave the opinion that because Earth has been manipulated for over 5, years, that we deserved an opportunity to prove ourselves - to at least have a shot at proving the other part of the council wrong.

So, the Andromedan council passed a directive that all extraterrestrial presence will be off our planet no later than August 12, Isn't it also curious that August 12, is also a resonant node for the Montauk Project?

Also, in year progressions, ,,, , , , The implications are interesting. The year was also designated the new target date for implementation of the New World Order, one year prior to ]. They want everything extraterrestrial on the planet, in the planet and Earth's moon out of here by that date. The reason for this is that they want to see how we will act when we are not being manipulated.

We are all being manipulated, and my first suggestion is to throw your television set away. I can't tell you how sincere I am about that. They are teaching you what to think, not how to think. If you give that up, you become a robot. I know it's going to be tough. This determination that ET influence will end by August 12, will be interesting, because living inside our planet to miles under the surface are reptilians who have been here a very long time, 17 humans from Sirius B, and Grey clones inside the Earth and on the moon.

Most of the original Greys are on Phobos, one of the moons of Mars , which is an artificial satellite. There are also around Orion beings inside the Earth from 9 different races. There are a lot of "bad boys" here who have technology thousands of years ahead of us.

It is estimated that Grey technology is 2, years ahead of us. The Orion group who control the Greys have technology approximately 3, years ahead of us. Nobody really knows how far the Draconians are, because they are incredibly elusive. The group from Sirius B are approximately years ahead of us. They have a camera that they can take a picture and separate it out to get data all the way back to conception.

Say I have a liver problem. They can go back and get the data relative to my healthy liver and project it holographically and heal the liver. This is holographic technology. It is literally me, healing myself. We have the same capabilities using our minds.

The key is to open it up to the idea that everything that we record in our mind is recorded holographically. Every single thought is recorded holographically.

When you are trying to create something in your life, through your mediations, don't look at it the way you normally do. Move around it, behind it, on top of it, beneath it. Train you mind and subconscious to see it for what it really is. They say we have this ability - they need technology to do this, but we don't, because we have the benefit of already having been on 11 th density. I want to talk to you about Lyrae and how the human race colonized our galaxy.

Based on the age of the Suns and the planets in our galaxy, it was decided that the human life form was to be created in the Lyran system. The human race lived there for approximately 40 million years, evolving.

The orientation of the human race in Lyrae was agricultural in nature. Apparently, we were very plentiful and abundant, and lived in peace. Then, one day, huge craft appeared in the sky. This scenario is the theme of the movie Independence Day , to air in the theatres nationally on July 7, ].

A large ship came out of the huge craft and approached the planet Bila , and reptilians from Alpha Draconis disembarked. Apparently, the Alpha Draconians and the Lyrans were afraid of each other. I told you before that the Alpha Draconians were apparently the first race in our galaxy to have interstellar space travel, and have had this capability for 4 billion years. Well, when the Draconians came and saw Bila, with all its abundance and food and natural resources, the Draconians wanted to control it.

There was apparently a miscommunication or misunderstanding between the Draconians and Lyran humans. The Lyrans wanted to know more about the Draconians before some kind of "assistance" was offered.

The Draconians mistook the communication as a refusal, and subsequently destroyed three out of 14 planets in the Lyran system. The Lyrans were basically defenseless. The planets Bila, Teka and Merck were destroyed. Over 50 million Lyran humans were killed. It is at this point in history that the Draconians began to look at humans as a food source.

This is how old the struggle is between the reptilian and human races. Now, I must make the point that not all the reptilian or human races are "dark". There is a mix. When we start meeting these races, you are going to have to trust your gut instinct. But, they are coming. Hale Bopp is on its way here. It is not a comet. I want to talk about Jehovah. He's a piece of work. I want you to know he's still alive and still scooting around, wreaking havoc.

He still doesn't have his stuff together. I mean, all you really have to do is take all your personal emotions away from your observation of the Bible, or the Old Testament, and just see what Jehovah did. It's clearly psychotic behavior. I don't want a "God" like that!

It's amazing how some people will defend it, saying "well, he was justified in killing everybody". The word " Jehovah " originally meant, in the Chaldean and Hebrew, " is, was, and will be ".

The reason he was given that name is because he lives such a long time. They live thousands of years in one incarnation. It never meant "creator of all things". He used technology to promote himself as a "God", and fear is an incredible tool when you want to get people to do something. Some of your have no doubt observed this factor in some of the activities of the world governments. The Chaldean people were the remnants of the Sumerian people.

This you probably already know. Much of the Hebrew religion and the religion of the Sumerians are similar. The books of Moses do not in any way suggest that Jehovah was in any way the only "lord of the Elohim".

The expressions "Elohim" and "Nephilim" are used in the original Hebrew tongue, and these expressions are plural in nature, which means that in their terms there was more than one "God". That should be a major tip to everyone. Abraham, whose name was "Abramou", did consider Jehovah to be a "God" because of the technology that Jehovah and the other Elohim possessed.

Many of the "Gods" did the same thing. They used technology to strike fear into the people, and they worshipped the "Gods" to avoid punishment. Any of this sound familiar, here in ?

Marduk , whom we also know as the Egyptian "God" Ra , Enki , and En-lil , were notorious for doing this. These extraterrestrial manipulators used bigotry because they wanted to control their own groups of people, and each of their offspring procreated with elements of the population of the earth. According to Moraney and Vasais, our native American races are the remnants of the ancient Babylonians.

They were brought here and hidden underground just prior to the flood of Noah. Now, what was the flood of Noah? We are told that it rained for 40 days and 40 nights. According to Moraney, the flood of Noah was as a result of the movement of Earth from one orbit to another around the Sun.

The Earth was apparently hit with a tractor beam and literally moved to an orbit further out from the Sun. This added five days to our rotational period around the Sun. The period of this 40 day rain was during the period when the magnetic poles of the Earth rotated degrees. My reason for telling you this is to try and give you a broader perspective. There is just so much more to who we are and who we've been. We have been manipulated by the "hidden ones". The reason they remain "unseen" is because on-the-whole they are basically afraid of us.

They are afraid of something about us. They absolutely do not want us to unite together, because then the "gig" is up. Now, when the extraterrestrials were here in force - that is, during the time referenced in the Bible where is says the Sons of God married the Daughters of Man, they bred and mated with their human wives.

Out of this came offspring, half-breeds. There were at that time, within the last years, predominantly 13 families from Sirius B and Nibiru , who were living here on the planet. These were the tribes of En-lil, Marduk, Enki, etc. They all had offspring. Those from Nibiru were a tribe that came about as a result of a "marriage" between some groups between Sirius B and Orion. It was in essence a "royal marriage" between groups that formed a "tribe".

This "tribe" was called Nibiru. The word Nibiru , in the ancient Sumerian language, means " between two peoples ". I know Sitchin calls it something else. The offspring were not allowed to go with the extraterrestrial parents when they left the Earth, because they were considered "half-breeds".

The reason they were viewed like this by the extraterrestrials was because of their Terran genetics, which contain certain genes from the primate race. According to Moraney, the first melding between the primate genes and the human species was 28,, BC, and there have been many prototypes.

In fact, they just found another prototype in Portugal that is estimated to be , years old. They will discover more. In fact, start looking for some major discoveries in Nigeria. Apparently, there is a tremendous amount of extraterrestrial technology buried in Nigeria, that has not been tapped yet.

When the extraterrestrials left, the real ET's, they left certain types of technology behind. The Indian Veda's discuss some of this technology. They had science teams who were constantly inventing new things, and as they got new technology they discarded the old.

Well, it was the Magi , the half-breeds , that were left these technologies. There were 13 major families that were considered under the heading of Magi. Does that number ring a bell? The members of these 13 families on earth contain the genetics of both Terran and extraterrestrial races that formerly tyrannized the Earth. They were basically left in charge.

Some of them were actually Pharaohs. The Magi interbreeding resulted in the cultures we today recognize as the "Ivory Hebrew", the "Mayan", the "Celts", and the "Aryan" races. Now, while all of this was transpiring on the surface of the planet, underground there was another extraterrestrial race that had been here - a race that has been here for hundreds of thousands of years. They are, of course, the reptilian race , which the Bible refers to as the " serpent race ".

They are still here, and they can't stand the radiation of the sun. They haven't been able to live on the surface of the planet since the last major war that occurred here approximately , years ago. They are basically hyperborean in nature. They have control of the planet at depths from to miles down. Typically, water-deprived birds produce urine that is 1.

This 'concentrating capacity' resides within the medullary cones. Solutes sodium chloride, or NaCl are actively transported out the ascending limb of the Loop of Henle Figure 8 , where they become concentrated in the medulla medullary cones. When urine passes throughout the osmotic gradient in the medulla, water leaves the tubules by osmosis and the urine become concentrated. Because only the looped nephrons contribute to the intramedullary osmotic gradient, the presence of loopless nephrons may limit the ability of the kidneys to produce hyperosmotic urine.

Thus, the concentrating ability of avian kidneys is more limited than in mammals. This reduced capacity of avian kidneys to concentrate urine compared to mammals means that more water accompanies the solutes that travel from the kidneys through ureters to the cloaca. Water-deprived birds do have a mechanism for reducing the amount of water leaving the kidneys. In response to dehydration, the pituitary gland releases more of a hormone called arginine vasotocin AVT into the blood.

In the kidneys, AVT causes a reduction in the glomerular filtration rate the rate at which plasma filters from the glomeruli into the glomerular capsule; Figure 8 so less water moves from the blood into the kidney tubules. In addition, AVT increases the permeability of the walls of collected ducts to water by opening protein water channels called aquaporins Figure 8. As the collecting ducts become more permeable, more water moves by osmosis out of the collecting ducts because of the higher solute concentration in the medullary cones and can be reabsorbed by kidney capillaries.

Studies to date suggest that the extent to which AVT can reduce urine production and water loss varies among species, but, in general, AVT is less effective in conserving water than the mammalian equivalent antidiuretic hormone, or ADH; Nishimura and Fan Therefore, water-deprived birds tend to produce more urine, and lose more water from the kidneys, than would a similar-sized water-deprived mammal.

A proposed model for urine concentration in the mammalian-type nephron of birds showing transport of NaCl and water in various nephron segments. Left , NaCl is actively exported out of the thick ascending limb TAL and some re-enters the descending limbs DLs by simple diffusion but, despite the resulting high solute concentration, water does not follow because the membrane is not permeable to water.

Loops of Henle exhibit some variation in length and more NaCl is transported out of the longer loops of Henle so the osmotic gradient is greatest near the end of the medullary. AVT arginine vasotocin is a hormone that helps birds conserve water by reducing the glomerular filtration rate the rate at which plasma moves from glomeruli in the glomerular capsules and by increasing the permeability of collecting ducts to water by opening protein water channels called aquaporins; AQP Figure from Nishimura and Fan Nasal respiratory turbinates are complex, epithelially lined structures in nearly all birds and mammals that act as intermittent countercurrent heat exchangers during respiration.

Respiratory turbinates also allow birds to conserve water by helping to 'dehumidify' air during exhalation. During inhalation top , ambient air passes over the respiratory turbinates and is warmed to body temperature.

As a result, air is saturated with water vapor, and the turbinates are cooled by evaporative water loss. During exhalation bottom , warm air from the lungs returns through the nasal passage and is cooled as it passes over the turbinate surfaces.

This results in a substantial reduction in the moisture and heat contained in exhaled air. This graph depicts water vapor added to inhaled air shaded arrow and water condensate recovered from exhaled air open arrow.

Hillenius and Ruben Birds that feed on nectar can consume a huge amount of fluid compared to their body weight. And the more dilute the nectar, the higher the volumes ingested. Although the birds derive nutrients and energy from nectar, they have to get rid of the large amounts of water taken in. Failing to do so can have devastating consequences. Palestine Sunbirds have somehow overcome the problems of life on liquid diet, so McWhorter et al. In the kidney, water is filtered out of blood by specialized structures called glomeruli, and some of the eliminated water is later reabsorbed in the nephron and collecting duct.

The researchers set out to test how these processes respond to water intake in Palestine Sunbirds. Although following the birds around and measuring their nectar intake is difficult, McWhorter and his colleagues came up with an ingenious solution to the problem. They discovered that the birds adjust the amount they consume according to the concentration of sucrose solutions they are fed: In this way, the team could vary the bird's water intake and measure the rates of renal filtration and reabsorption.

McWhorter explained that when the team began investigating this nectarivorous bird's approach to fluid management, it was thought that renal filtration changes according to water status; decreasing in response to water shortage, but increasing only moderately as the birds take on water.

But this was based on ideas developed for birds that do not regularly cope with a large intake of water. McWhorter and his team also knew that when the birds are on dilute diets, water is shunted through the gut without being absorbed.

So, how would Palestine Sunbirds' kidneys cope? The team found that renal filtration is not exceptionally sensitive to water loading in sunbirds; it increased only slightly in response to a dramatic decrease in sucrose concentration. On the other hand, the fractional water reabsorption - a measure of the proportion of the eliminated water that is reabsorbed by the kidney - dropped significantly when the birds were on the most dilute diet.

The sunbirds' kidney responds to the elevated water levels by decreasing reabsorption, rather than by raising the filtration rate. The team also found that the glucose and osmotic concentrations in the final excreted fluids were significantly lower than those in the ureteral fluids released by the kidney.

Because the gut and urinary tracts of birds join at the cloaca, the researchers conjecture that the dietary water that shunts through the gut might have diluted the ureteral fluids. They conclude that Palestine Sunbirds deal with large amounts of water intake by not absorbing it in the first place.

From an economical standpoint this makes sense, as eliminating water by increasing renal filtration rate can be energetically costly for birds. Sugar and other metabolites lost during filtration may only be retained by reabsorption, possibly overwhelming the kidney's ability to prevent solute loss.

But how the gut could absorb nutrients without taking in dietary water is still a mystery, as the two processes normally come hand in hand Click on the photo to check out Peter Jones' website. Sunbirds and other birds feeding on nectar from aloe erythrina Erythrina livingstoniana flowers. An important part of the diet of all birds is protein. Proteins are composed of subunits called amino acids, and those amino acids are sometimes used as a source of energy or are converted into fats or carbohydrates.

When amino acids are used for energy or converted to fats or carbohydrates, the amine NH 2 group must be removed. These amine groups are toxic and must be eliminated. Some organisms excrete these nitrogenous wastes as ammonia e. Birds and reptiles excrete these wastes primarily as uric acid. Although excreting nitrogenous wastes as uric acid has its advantages e. Molecular structure of a typical amino acid, ammonia, urea, and uric acid. The homeostasis of fluid and ions in birds involves several organ systems Figure 10 and is a more complex phenomenon than in other vertebrates.

In birds, the kidneys and lower gastrointestinal tract cloaca, rectum, and ceca are involved in the regulation of extracellular fluid composition. Many birds also have functional salt glands see below.

Osmoregulatory organs of birds Hughes As noted above, the avian kidney has a limited capacity for the conservation of body water and electrolytes via elimination of hyperosmotic urine.

This low capacity to concentrate urine is not a liability because urine formed by the kidneys travels along the ureters into the cloaca Figure From there, it may move by retrograde peristalsis into the lower intestine colon and cecae. Fluid from the upper gastrointestinal tract also enters the cloaca. Therefore, the cloaca receives an influx of water from the kidneys and the small intestine. The influx of water into the cloaca can be reabsorbed through the epithelium of the lower intestinal tract to maintain hydration.

In the lower intestine and cecae, water and sodium chloride are reclaimed by the process of sodium-linked water reabsorption Figure In other words, positively-charged sodium ions are actively transported out of the intestine and negatively-charged chloride ions follow. Water then follows by osmosis.

Uric acid is, as a result, concentrated and excreted as a relatively dry mixture with feces Hildebrandt Diagram of the cloaca and lower intestine of a domestic chicken Gallus gallus.

Initially, the solutes in the urine cause water to move by osmosis out of the surrounding tissues and into the coprodeum the section of the cloaca adjacent to the colon or large intestine. After being transported by peristalsis into the colon, however, NaCl is transported out of the colon and water follows the concentration gradient osmosis and is reabsorbed Laverty and Skadhauge The predominate form in which nitrogen is excreted by birds uric acid requires little water for excretion because it isn't very soluble in water.

However, it does require a significant amount of protein to maintain it in a colloidal suspension in the urine i. The source of some of this protein is the plasma, as significant amounts pass through the glomerular filtration barrier.

This protein is not lost because it is broken down when the urine enters the lower colon Goldstein et al. In the colon, the composition of the urine is altered in several ways. The urine spheres are broken down, as is the protein that aided the formation of those spheres.

METABOLISM Defined for English Language Learners