I started this program in March. In , Albert Szent-Györgyi isolated ascorbic acid , and in proved that it is vitamin C by preventing scurvy. We recommend trying any product before buying it and know that finding a product with a sample offer is near impossible - so we created our own product, Burn TS, with scientifically backed ingredients. In the short term, caffeine can boost the metabolic rate and increase fat burning, but after a while people become tolerant to the effects and it stops working. Catabolism - the breakdown of molecules to obtain energy.
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Resistant starch, oligofructan, inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and polydextrose can also be measured independently by several methods [ 29 ].
However, these methods incompletely measure all fibers included in the Codex definition, and the use of some or all of these methods could result in underestimation of some fibers as well as overestimation of others due to double counting. It is also particularly important for food labelling that fiber analysis be completed on foods as they would be eaten in order to provide more accurate fiber values that account for the effects of processing and cooking procedures [ 49 ].
The AOAC method Dietary fibers have been strongly implicated in the prevention and treatment of various characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. The beneficial effect of fiber-rich foods and isolated fibers, both insoluble and soluble, on obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes has been shown in randomized studies [ 6 , 11 ].
Diets rich in fiber improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes [ 54 ], reduce low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia [ 55 — 57 ], and contribute positively to long-term weight management [ 58 ].
In epidemiological studies, positive associations were noted between increased cereal consumption, a source of both insoluble and soluble fibers, and reduced risk of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, and markers of systemic inflammation [ 59 — 61 ]. Diets rich in whole-grain foods have also been negatively associated with metabolic syndrome [ 6 , 8 , 11 ]. In comparison to insoluble fibers, soluble fibers are more potent in attenuating the presence of components of the metabolic syndrome in both animals and humans.
Serum leptin levels were normalized and insulin sensitivity index was improved. The diet supplemented with the soluble fermentable fiber Plantago Ovata husks also resulted in the greatest improvement in hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia, and lowered the production and accumulation of lipids in the liver.
This effect was associated with activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase AMPK system [ 63 ], known to increase fatty acid oxidation and decrease fatty acid synthesis [ 64 ]. Moreover, a high fiber meal, in which refined-wheat flour was replaced with whole-wheat flour High adiponectin levels are associated with improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity, a more favorable lipid profile and reduced inflammation in diabetic females [ 68 ]. Glucans from barley, oats, or wheat are found in cell walls of the endosperm, while being concentrated in the aleurone layer of barley, oats, wheat, sorghum, and other cereals.
They are major structural components of the cell walls of yeast, fungi, and some bacteria [ 75 ]. These glucans are important for plant-microbe interactions, and act as signalling molecules during plant infection [ 76 ]. However, no sharp distinction exists between the insoluble and soluble fractions and the ratio is highly dependent on the extraction conditions of the soluble fiber [ 82 ].
This conformation allows for stronger interactions and associations between chains than between the chains and water molecules. Solubility increases as the degree of polymerization is lowered. One study completed in mice found that effects of chronic consumption of chitin-glucan from a fungal source improved metabolic abnormalities induced by a high fat diet [ 99 ].
In this particular study, chitin-glucan decreased high fat diet-induced body weight gain, fat mass development, fasting hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and hypercholesterolemia, irrespective of caloric intake.
These benefits include lowering postprandial glucose and insulin responses, decreasing cholesterol levels, and potentiating the feelings of satiety.
Insulin resistance, whether or not accompanied with hyperglycemia, and type 2 diabetes are well-established components of metabolic syndrome [ ]. Beta glucan also contributes to glycemic control. Several factors were found to influence such an interaction, including dose, food form, and molecular weight.
In subjects with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, consumption of three breakfasts with 4, 6, and 8. Consumption of oat bran providing 7. The consumption of oat bran flour containing 9. This is perhaps because wheat pasta itself has a low glycemic response. One of the mechanisms includes the ability of soluble fibers to form viscous solutions. Delayed gastric emptying occurs with increased digesta viscosity [ — ], slowing subsequent digestion and absorption [ ]. High digesta viscosity decreases enzyme diffusion [ ] and stimulates the formation of the unstirred water layer [ ], decreasing glucose transport to enterocytes [ 31 ].
Reducing the viscosity of guar gum following acid hydrolysis resulted in concurrent loss of its clinical efficacy [ 31 ]. A relationship was noted between guar gum viscosity and its glycemic response.
Similarly, the addition of 13 C-labelled glucose to a meal containing 8. Individuals with metabolic syndrome often present with atherogenic dyslipidemia, characterized by elevated concentrations of triacylglycerols and low levels of HDL cholesterol in blood [ 3 ].
This lipid profile presents an individual with a high risk for cardiovascular disease. Soluble fibers have the most reported beneficial effects on cholesterol metabolism.
In a meta-analysis, soluble fibers pectin, psyllium, oat bran, and guar gum were all proven to be equally effective in reducing plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels [ 55 ].
Conversely, soluble fibers from barley, oats, psyllium, and pectin had no effect on HDL cholesterol levels [ 55 , ]. Variable effects of soluble fibers on triglyceridemia have been noted. In two meta-analyses, soluble fibers, including barley, oats, psyllium, and pectin, had no significant impacts on triglyceride concentrations [ ].
Other studies have described hypotriglyceridemic effects of soluble fibers in various populations. The soluble fiber in Plantago Ovata husk reduced triglyceridemia in human secondary cardiovascular disease risk trials, when consumed at Discrepancies in findings could be attributed to the variability in fiber structure, the degree of solubility and viscosity, different administered doses, the duration of administration, and baseline triglyceride levels of the subjects.
However, other studies found no hypocholesterolemic effect of incorporating oats into bread [ , — ]. The activation of these enzymes depends on the processing technique used in bread making.
Altering bile acid excretion and the composition of bile acid pool is one of the mechanisms. Beta glucans can decrease the reabsorption of bile acids and increase their transport towards the large intestine [ ], promoting their increased microbial conversion to metabolites and their higher excretion, subsequently inducing increased hepatic synthesis of bile acids from circulating cholesterol [ ].
In addition, some soluble fibers decrease the absorption of dietary cholesterol by altering the composition of the bile acid pool. In fact, oat bran increased the portion of total bile acid pool that was deoxycholic acid [ ], a microbial byproduct of bile acid which decreases the absorption of exogenous cholesterol in humans [ ]. Fermentation changes the concentration of bile acids in the intestinal tract of rats [ ] as well as the production of short-chain fatty acids, which influence lipid metabolism.
For example, propionate is thought to suppress cholesterol synthesis, though results are still inconclusive [ — ] and acetate may contribute to the lowering of cholesterol circulating levels [ ].
It should be well noted that differences between soluble fibers in the relative production of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total short-chain fatty acids do exist. However, such differences may not be that important to generate varied degrees of hypocholesterolemic impacts among soluble fibers. Two mechanisms include a possible delay in the absorption of triglycerides in the small intestine [ ], as well as a reduced rate of glucose absorption [ ]. Glucose-induced hypertriglyceridemia, via the process of de novo lipogenesis, is well established in the literature [ ].
Furthermore, direct inhibition of lipogenesis by soluble fibers is also suggested as an explanatory mechanism. The hypotriglyceridemic effect of oligofructose was reported to result from the inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis via the modulation of fatty acid synthase activity [ , ]. Hypertension is another core component of the metabolic syndrome, and is an established risk factor for heart diseases, stroke, and renal diseases [ ].
In one meta-analysis, increased dietary fiber consumption provided a safe and acceptable means to reduce blood pressure in patients with hypertension [ ].
In another randomized parallel-group study on hypertensive and hyperinsulinemic men and women, the oat cereal group standardized to 5. Various mechanisms underlying the antihypertensive effects of soluble dietary fibers have been hypothesized. Insulin resistance is a major underlying mechanism contributing to the development of hypertension [ ] and soluble fibers may affect blood pressure by modulating insulin metabolism [ ].
Reductions in plasma cholesterol, observed following the ingestion of soluble fibers, are also associated with improvements in endothelium-mediated vasodilation [ , ].
Preliminary findings in animals support a direct relationship between changes in circulating cholesterol levels and blood pressure [ ]. Finally, soluble fiber-induced weight loss, which will be discussed in the coming section, has also been suggested as a potential mechanism.
Increased body weight is a strong risk factor for hypertension [ ]. In conclusion, additional studies are still needed in order to fully elucidate the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of soluble fibers against hypertension. Central obesity is a well-established component of the metabolic syndrome [ 3 ]. One potential countermeasure to the current obesity epidemic is to identify and recommend foods that spontaneously reduce energy intake by inducing satiation and increasing satiety.
Dietary fiber has documented effects on satiety, food intake, and body weight although the outcomes have not been consistent [ ]. A number of randomized controlled trials have shown weight reduction with diets rich in dietary fiber or dietary fiber supplements [ — ], while others have not [ ]. More specifically, the soluble dietary fiber glucomannan, which has a strong water-holding capacity, resulted in a significantly greater reduction of weight, when consumed at a dose of 1.
Despite the clear association between soluble fibers and weight loss, their effects on subjective measures of satiety are not conclusive. For example, the addition of 2. The soluble resistant dextrins promoted, in a dose-dependent manner, increased satiety when added to desserts and to carbohydrate-based meals [ — ]. Moreover, a nutrition bar containing guar gum 5. Subjects described to be significantly less hungry before lunch after consuming barley—but not wheat—and rice-containing foods [ ].
Barley-based foods enhanced as well satiety when compared to a high-glycemic index food or a food with no dietary fiber [ — ]. Similarly, a preload of 5. This was also associated with a significant reduction of energy intake at the subsequent lunch [ ]. In contrast, a meal replacement bar containing 1. Dose is one of the major determinants. Solid foods are known to increase satiety and decrease hunger more effectively than liquid ones [ ]. Moreover, another concern to be addressed in future studies is the type of control to use.
No dietary fiber that may function as a control for satiety studies has been actually identified. It should be noted that the body weight was not the primary concern of these studies as they focused on changes in blood sugar or blood lipids.
The satiating properties of soluble dietary fibers have been explained by various mechanisms, all of which are related to several stages in the process of appetite regulation such as taste, gastric emptying, absorption, and fermentation [ ].
Firstly, the viscosity of soluble fibers plays an important role in their ability to induce satiety [ , , ]. A higher viscosity meal delays gastric emptying [ , , ] and slows the digestion and absorption of nutrients, more precisely glucose, due to reduced enzymatic activity and mucosal absorption [ 31 , ], leading to early satiety sensations.
The overall gastric emptying rate of healthy volunteers, as assessed by the paracetamol absorption test, was slower after the high viscosity oat bran-enriched beverage as compared to the low viscosity drink [ ]. Secondly, the lower palatability of fiber-rich meals may affect food intake in a negative manner [ — ].
A strong inverse relationship is described between palatability and satiation [ ]. A significant inverse relationship is reported between satiety and glucose and insulin responses to carbohydrate-rich breakfast cereals [ , ] and to beverages with different glycemic effects [ ]. However, other studies did not report any association of glucose and insulin postprandial levels with satiety [ , ].
They suggested that the release of putative satiety peptides is a more crucial component of mechanisms initiating and maintaining satiety. Such statement leads to the fourth suggested mechanism that delineates the role of short-chain fatty acids in appetite control.
Short-chain fatty acids regulate the release of various gut hormones, which play an important role in satiety signaling. The role of short-chain fatty acids in appetite regulation and the potential underlying mechanisms will be elucidated in the following sections.
The fermentability of soluble fibers by colonic microbiota is greater than that of insoluble fibers. Pectin, resistant starches, gums, and polyfructans such as inulin are the most highly fermented substrates. On the other hand, acetate passes more freely into the peripheral circulation [ ]. Several functions are attributed to short-chain fatty acids, being recently proposed as key energy homeostasis signaling molecules [ ].
Accumulating evidence has attributed the satiating effects of fermentable carbohydrates to short-chain fatty acids, their major fermentation products [ ].
Short-chain fatty acids regulate appetite through several mechanisms. First, short-chain fatty acids have a role in slowing gastrointestinal motility, thus controlling digestion and nutrient absorption and eliciting an anorexigenic effect.
The majority of the studies linking short-chain fatty acids to gastrointestinal motility stems from ruminant animal studies [ ], where the production of short-chain fatty acids is greater than that in humans due to differences in gut physiology [ ]. However, there are some studies on nonruminants showing that short-chain fatty acids may regulate the overall transit time of the digesta through the large intestine [ , ]. Such responses were hypothesized to occur via three possible pathways: In addition, short-chain fatty acids were suggested to regulate gastrointestinal motility by affecting the release of the gastrointestinal 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT via the activation of the free fatty acid receptor 2 FFA2 , the major receptor for short-chain fatty acids.
The activation of various 5-HT receptor subtypes stimulates vagal nodose neurons and consequently prolongs colonic transit time [ , ]. Short-chain fatty acids also regulate appetite by modulating the release of various appetite-related hormones throughout the gastrointestinal tract [ ].
Peptide YY Peptide YY is a amino acid peptide, first isolated from porcine upper small intestine [ ]. PYY is secreted throughout the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract, with the highest concentrations found in the colon and rectum [ ].
Circulating PYY levels are the lowest in the fasting state and increase following the consumption of a meal, peaking at hours and remaining elevated for several hours. Peripheral PYY administration decreased food intake and body weight gain in rats [ ]. Similarly, it decreased appetite and food intake both in lean and obese humans [ , ]. An increased PYY response was consistently described following the consumption of various soluble dietary fibers. Postprandial PYY clearly increased after the consumption of psyllium-enriched test meals in healthy volunteers [ ].
The consumption of PolyGlycopleX, a novel functional fiber complex manufactured from three dietary fibers to form a highly viscous polysaccharide with high water-holding and gel-forming properties, for 3 weeks resulted in significantly increased fasting PYY levels as compared to the control product in healthy adults [ ]. The direct infusion of short-chain fatty acids into rabbit and rat colons significantly increased PYY secretions [ , ]. The stimulatory effects of short-chain fatty acids on PYY secretions are mainly attributed to a direct interaction between short-chain fatty acids and PYY cells.
In fact, FFA2 also known as GPR43 , the major receptor for short-chain fatty acids, is colocalized with PYY immunoreactive enteroendocrine L cells both in rat ileum and human colon [ , ]. Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Glucagon-like peptide 1 is cosecreted with PYY from the intestinal L cells, encoded by the proglucagon gene [ ]. It is described with a potent incretin effect, stimulating insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. Circulating GLP-1 levels rise following nutrient ingestion, in proportion to the energetic content of the meal [ ].
An acute intracerebroventricular administration of GLP-1 to rodents induced a decline in short-term energy intake [ ], and was associated with a reduced body weight following repeated administration [ ].
Similarly, an intravenous infusion of GLP-1 both in normal weight and in obese subjects resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in food intake [ ]. Variable GLP-1 responses to soluble dietary fiber intake were described, whether elevated, inhibited, or unaffected. On the other hand, the ingestion of pasta enriched with a small amount of psyllium fiber 1. Such discrepancies in findings could be attributed to differences in the structures and food sources of ingested soluble fibers and their administered doses.
Colonic fermentation appears to be essential in explaining GLP-1 release in response to soluble dietary fibers, despite inconsistent findings. Though supplementation with fermentable carbohydrates has been consistently associated with increased colonic proglucagon mRNA expression [ — ], only few studies detected increased plasma GLP-1 circulating levels in parallel [ — , — ]. A strong association between postprandial hydrogen production and plasma GLP-1 concentrations was also reported.
On the contrary, others have shown no effect of fermentable carbohydrates on circulating GLP-1 levels, whether acutely [ ] or over a short duration of 6 days [ ]. Based on these findings, the duration of supplementation is an important factor to consider when suggesting fermentation as a basis for soluble fibers-induced GLP-1 release.
A sufficient time of weeks must be given in order to allow adaptation of the gut microbiota to the additional fermentable carbohydrate within the diet for maximal fermentation to take place [ ] and for GLP-1 levels in circulation to be subsequently affected. Cholecystokinin Cholecystokinin was among the first hormones shown to modulate food intake [ ]. It is secreted from the I cells of the small intestine in response to food ingestion [ ].
Cholecystokinin circulating levels rise rapidly after a meal, reaching a peak within 15 minutes. It was found to reduce food intake when infused both in rodents and humans [ , ]. In fact, plasma CCK levels are strongly associated with subjective measurements of satiety in women [ ]. Limited studies described the interaction between soluble dietary fibers and CCK release. The role of fermentation and more specifically short-chain fatty acids in regulating CCK release is still poorly understood.
In pigs, ileal infusion of short-chain fatty acids did not affect CCK circulating levels [ ]. Ghrelin Ghrelin is the only known orexigenic hormone in the gut.
It was initially identified as an endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor GH-SR in rat stomach [ ]. Circulating ghrelin levels increase before meals and fall rapidly after eating [ ]. Both central and peripheral administration of ghrelin increased food intake and body weight in rodents [ , ].
The ephedra part of the formula is no longer legal for use by companies offering fat burners. The ingredients work synergistically with ephedra elongating the time caffeine is present in the body and the aspirin thinning the blood to get everything moving faster.
The mild hot tea you drink every morning may offer more than you thought. When combined with caffeine, green tea can spark thermogenesis. EGCG is found in green tea. This spice can be used for more than seasoning food. There is some connection between chili powder and increased energy expenditure, which leads to fat loss. Another ingredient in your kitchen also has some fat burning qualities.
Clinical studies have proven protein can improve thermogenesis or fat burning. Just because a fat burner is proven to work, does not mean it is safe for everyone. It is always a good idea to speak with your physician if you have an underlying medical condition or you take prescription medications. Fat burners dieters need to take a closer look at include synephrine, ephedra and DNP. Though synephrine is commonly used as a replacement for ephedra there are some side effects that you may need to worry about.
You have to look no further than the FDA to see why ephedra was pulled from the market.