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Passport used by Salisbury Novichok suspect links him I myselfcoached someone who became sick after two precleanse days and two liquid cleanse days. Is there anyone who would like to share their experience with me either positive or negative? Meat could be up to four times as expensive as bread. Essentials of Creatine in Sports and Health.

The History Of Phentermine

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Initially, it was packaged alongside another weight loss drug fenfluramine under the name fen-phen which was significantly popular throughout its years. Since it belongs to the same class as amphetamines, it was classified as a controlled substance and specifically as a Schedule IV controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act.

This time using topiramate alongside phentermine which was eventually approved by the FDA in after several rejections due to some health concerns. This drug is extensively used in obesity treatment and in general as a weight loss drug.

The main claim relating to phentermine is that this ingredient may help suppress appetite, increase energy and promote weight loss. It affects the brain by inhibiting the neurotransmitters responsible for generating and controlling hunger based signals.

By inhibiting these signals, it slows down the signal processing related to hunger and as a result, slows down or decreases the appetite of the person taking the drug. It facilitates the release of adrenalin which provides an energy boost which is why the drug is used in exercise programs as well. Since it is from the same class as amphetamines, its use is as prescribed by a medical expert such as a doctor or physician which is why it is only available as a prescription drug.

Phentermine is short for phenyl-tertiary-butyl-amine which is itself an organic compound with the chemical formula C10H15N. Phentermine is sold in different ways such as on its own as a stand-alone product in the form of pills or as combination drugs with other weight-loss drugs.

Being a compound itself there are no other ingredients within it. In terms of its chemical structure and formulation, phentermine is manufactured from benzaldehyde and 2-nitropropane which are reacted under the nitroaldol or Henry reaction to form an amino-alcohol.

The nitro group is reduced using hydrogen gas over the Raney nickel while the alcohol group or the hydroxyl is chlorinated with thionyl chloride which results in 2-aminochloromethylphenylpropane. This intermediate product is reduced using hydrogen gas over palladium catalyst to end up with the final product phenyl tertiary butylamine or phentermine.

Considering that phentermine is almost universally recommended by obesity and weight loss experts as a product to reduce appetite while maintaining the energy level, we can safely conclude that it does work. In fact, it works so well that it has to be classified as a controlled substance since it has significant potential to be abused.

Based on the commercial products under which phentermine is sold by pharmaceutical manufacturers, various products have small tweaks and design changes. But, overall the purpose of the phentermine drug is fulfilled by all. This is mainly why phentermine is treated as a controlled substance and allowed only under prescription and supervision of a medical expert. Given that controlled amounts of phentermine are used in the treatment of obesity or in the search for effective weight loss techniques, it can have significant results over time.

Weight loss is generally a long-term project and phentermine is not a magic pill which will solve the problem instantaneously. However, under the correct supervision of dosage, proper diet and exercise the effects are unanimously agreed to be good. Phentermine inhibits the parts of the brain which are related to controlling and monitoring hunger responses when received from the related organs. It also increases production of adrenaline which provides an energy boost which the patient uses in exercise while the hunger reduction allows the patient to ingest fewer amounts of food and calories than that required by the body.

To effectively reduce weight and fat reserves, a long-term plan must be laid out to allow the patient to attain significant weight loss by the use of phentermine. On a more technical note, the actual chemical and biological interaction of the phentermine compound with the central nervous system is explained as follows.

This interaction of phentermine is similar to that of amphetamines in how they are both trace amine-associated receptor 1 TAAR1 agonists meaning that they activate the TAAR1 protein which plays a significant role in the neurotransmission in dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in the central nervous system.

As a result of the release of these hormones in the central nervous system, parts of the brain concerned with hunger responses are inhibited such as the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, arcuate nucleus and ventromedial nucleus.

Outside of the brain, the activation of TAAR1 results in the release of norepinephrine and epinephrine i. Phentermine is available as a stand-alone drug or as a combination drug, both of which are available by prescription only. The particular method of ingestion may be different for pills manufactured by different companies and depend on the dosage recommended by the doctor. Since the effects of phentermine are related to disrupting several neural pathways, it is not recommended to be taken at night before sleeping since it may cause difficulty in sleeping.

However, the dosage is 15 to Increased doses may only be taken with the prior approval of the medical expert since the effects of higher doses may be felt much more strongly.

Stopping the intake of phentermine may lead to withdrawal effects so it is important that the patient does not stop his or her medicinal dosage without the consultation of their supervisor. A standard way of avoiding any major withdrawal effects is to reduce the daily dosage of the pill gradually to allow the body the necessary time to adapt to the changing conditions.

It is possible that patients who had been using large doses might feel much stronger withdrawal effects and they would need to consult their doctor in order to devise the right way to overcome these effects. Being a part of the same group of chemicals as amphetamines, it must be mentioned that phentermine may cause effects similar to methamphetamines. However, side effects from using phentermine include: As a drug that directly affects parts of the brain and several neural pathways in between, there are a large number of precautions that must be taken before, during and after the use of phentermine.

Patients with health conditions, those taking prescription medications or over-the-counter supplements, women who are pregnant or nursing or anyone under 18 years of age should contact a doctor before using phentermine. Phentermine in conjunction with alcohol can cause dizziness so alcohol use is to be minimized while the drug is being used. Phentermine causes epinephrine i. Diabetic patients must take extra care in their dosage in careful consultation with their doctors to maintain their blood sugar levels.

If the patient requires any other medication during the period in which they are using phentermine, then they should contact their doctor first. Phentermine is classified as an appetite suppressant drug and there are several alternatives to it, some which are of the same type ingestible pills and some natural alternatives such as:.

The natural compounds in this herb cause calmness and positivity which reduce the stress and anxiety of dieting and daily exercise which results in an improved dieting process and increased fat burning which leads to weight loss. The natural compounds in this particular type of pine nut oil act to release a particular hormone CCK-8 which is normally released when feelings of a full stomach are attained. As a result, it induces feelings of feeling full which reduces the appetite of the person and eventually leads to weight loss.

It definitely suppresses appetite. I take of them per day if I need to reduce caloric intake for a period of time, in order to lose weight. I have not experienced any sense of jitteriness from using the product.

So, will you see Phentermine results? One of the products we like the most is Burn TS. The formula contains four clinically-tested ingredients, that have been shown to promote weight-loss by accelerating metabolism and igniting fat loss. Choosing the right weight-loss system can be confusing and often times frustrating. Let us know a little more about you and your goals. It is best to consult with your physician to make sure it is safe for you, all users are different.

Side effects from Phentermine reported by some users include dry mouth, constipation, headache, irritability, mood swings, nervousness, anxiety, nausea and upset stomach. Choosing the right product is the 1 question asked by DietSpotlight readers. We recommend trying any product before buying it and know that finding a product with a sample offer is near impossible - so we created our own product, Burn TS, with scientifically backed ingredients.

Yes, Phentermine for weight loss does work. Studies and Phentermine before and after pictures have shown individuals using the medications have lost weight. But, the Phentermine average weight loss may vary and the company states that the medication is only for short-term use. The cost of a bottle of Phentermine depends on the pharmacy where purchased, generic or branded, as well as if your insurance offers a discount. Multiple pharmaceutical companies make the generic version.

You can contact the customer service department or your local pharmacy for additional details relating returning the medication. Phentermine helps people lose weight by its effect on the central nervous system, which suppresses appetite. Unlike certain formulations of phentermine that are best taken before the first meal of the day or two hours after. Phentermine is considered a controlled substance both internationally and in the United States. Like an amphetamine, phentermine is a medication with a stimulant effect on the central nervous system that, in turn, suppresses appetite.

In conjunction with dietary changes and exercise, phentermine is used for weight loss and management in overweight individuals suffering from a risk factor such as diabetes, elevated blood pressure, or increased cholesterol. Phentermine is used for the treatment of obesity. It should be used short term, in conjunction with dietary changes and exercise. Through its stimulant effect on the central nervous system, phentermine suppresses the appetite, thus aiding weight loss.

Phentermine is most effective when taken without food- before the first meal of the day or two hours post. Typically, for appetite suppression, phentermine is prescribed to be given as one Phentermine is legal for use as a prescription weight loss aid in the United States. In the past, phentermine was used in combination with fenfluramine for weight loss. Fenfluramine was made illegal for use by the FDA in the late 90s. Fenfluramine has demonstrated damaging effects on the heart, but phentermine is still legal and available for use.

Summer Banks, Director of Content at Dietspotlight, has researched over weight-loss programs, pills, shakes and diet plans. Previously, she managed 15 supplement brands, worked with professionals in the weight loss industry and completed coursework in nutrition at Stanford University.

Do Not Send Email Notifications. Oh and also I was looking at the phentermine that is listed on the websites that claim to be nonprescription but they are not the same. If you look closely they are not even spelled the same they are spelled phentremene and phentamene. Which are not doctor recommended. I was prescribed phentermine 2 weeks ago by my doctor for last results to my extreme weight loss to diabetes.

I had gaine 50 pounds in the past 2 years. Such a reaction happens when grilling or pan-frying meat. Use of creatine by healthy adults in normal dosages does not harm kidneys; its effects on the kidney in elderly people and adolescents were not well understood as of People with kidney disease, high blood pressure, or liver disease should not take creatine as a dietary supplement.

One well-documented effect of creatine supplementation is weight gain within the first week of the supplement schedule, likely attributable to greater water retention due to the increased muscle creatine concentrations.

A systematic review discredited concerns that creatine supplementation could affect hydration status and heat tolerance and lead to muscle cramping and diarrhea. Creatine taken with medications that can harm the kidney can increase the risk of kidney damage: Creatine has a fairly short elimination half-life, averaging just less than 3 hours, so to maintain an elevated plasma level it would be necessary to take small oral doses every 3—6 hours throughout the day.

As with most supplements, each person has their own genetic "preset" amount of creatine they can hold. The rest is eliminated as waste. Creatine supplementation appears to increase the number of myonuclei that satellite cells will 'donate' to damaged muscle fibers , which increases the potential for growth of those fibers.

This increase in myonuclei probably stems from creatine's ability to increase levels of the myogenic transcription factor MRF4. Creatine supplements are marketed in ethyl ester , gluconate , monohydrate , and nitrate forms. The most prevalent of these contaminants was creatinine , a breakdown product of creatine also produced by the body.

Heavy metals contamination was not found to be a concern, with only minor levels of mercury being detectable. Two studies reviewed in found no impurities. In , Harvard University researchers Otto Folin and Willey Glover Denis found evidence that ingesting creatine can dramatically boost the creatine content of the muscle.

The substance creatine is naturally formed in vertebrates. While creatine's influence on physical performance has been well documented since the early twentieth century, it came into public view following the Olympics in Barcelona.

An August 7, article in The Times reported that Linford Christie , the gold medal winner at meters, had used creatine before the Olympics.

An article in Bodybuilding Monthly named Sally Gunnell , who was the gold medalist in the meter hurdles, as another creatine user. In addition, The Times also noted that meter hurdler Colin Jackson began taking creatine before the Olympics.

At the time, low-potency creatine supplements were available in Britain, but creatine supplements designed for strength enhancement were not commercially available until when a company called Experimental and Applied Sciences EAS introduced the compound to the sports nutrition market under the name Phosphagen.

It is ineffective as a treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A meta-analysis found that creatine treatment increased muscle strength in muscular dystrophies, and potentially improved functional performance. Creatine's impact on mitochondrial function has led to research on its efficacy and safety for slowing Parkinson's disease. As of , the evidence did not provide a reliable foundation for treatment decisions, due to risk of bias, small sample sizes, and the short duration of trials.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 12 September Not to be confused with creatinine. N -Carbamimidoyl- N -methylglycine; Methylguanidoacetic acid. Interactive image Interactive image. Std molar entropy S o Stout, Jose Antonio, Douglas Kalman, eds. Essentials of Creatine in Sports and Health.

Metabolism and Possible Interactions". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. She assured me it was a flu the diarrhea would start soon and that it would pass in approx. Thus began the horrible wait.

After about 48hrs my husband brought me back to the emergency. This time there was no wait, I was immediately hooked up to an IV and given pain medication and gravol they knew right away what the problem was.

They were unable to operate because there was such a mess floating around inside. I was a patient of Infectious desease and sugery departments. By this time my veins were collapsing and they could no longer get blood samples on a regular basis. Long story I know but it continues. At this point the pain is unbearable even with all the pain medication that made me feel horrible and on edge and my stomache had grown to the size of a pregnant lady expecing twins.

About three weeks in they decided to take a chance and try sugery nothing else seemed to work and fannkly I was begging them to at this point. About week 3 or 4 they noticed that the infections stuff floating around in my abdomen was starting to attach itself to my organs. I had two what they call pigtails inserted into my abdomen during an ultrasound I was awake to drain the infection. Finally after 6 weeks inc. Christmas and New Years in the hospital I was sent home with my central pick line to continue home care.

A year later I still felt unwell and noticed that I had alot of pain on my right side and requested another cat scan. Well the results quickly brought me to my next sugery a full hysteroctomy due to complications from the rupture appendix.

I walked around with a ruptured appendix for months. I was in the hospital April with diverticulitis. May of , I had a fistula with the colon and my bladder, so they needed to operate and fix up the bladder. When they opened me up, they found that my appendix was ruptured and my right overy was all abcessed over. How I am still alive is pretty amazing. I was in a good amount of pain for a year before they figured out what the problem was.

Hi, Back in I experienced horrible pain in my abdomen, went to the local emergency room and was diagnosed with block blowel and sent home with a liquid laxative.

I believe after taking the laxative is when my appendix ruptured. Things just went from bad to worse and went to another emergency room twice was finally admitted to a hospital. They did every test in the book and after 8 days in the hospital, released me undiagnosed. I continued to become weaker and weaker and then something really horrible happened and I called the doctor and he knew immediately what had happened. My appendix had ruptured 30 days before and I was instructed to go to the hospital immediately.

Surgery was performed the next day and all my abdominal organs had to be taken out, cleaned and replaced. No one can believe that I am still alive. Guess the Lord still has something planned for me. I thank God everyday that I am still here.

When I was 12, I was horribly sick for about a week. I remember one night rolling around on the floor screaming as my vision turned red.

I started to feel better, but over the next 3 months I was constantly sick. I would come home from school 3 days out of the week. I started to see a doctor who tested me with ultrasounds and stomach x-rays but nothing showed up. They saw that my white blood cell count was off the charts and sent me to the bigger hospital an hour drive away. I stayed at that hospital for 2 days before they sent me by Careflight to UC Davis Medical Center, where after a few days they diagnosed me with a ruptured appendix that had ruptured 3 months back.

I stayed in the hospital for another week and a half. I have a nice 4 inch scar and an interesting story out of the whole ordeal. Due to these months of my body dealing with the ruptured appendix, my hormones have gotten screwed up and due to issues related to the hormones, have had my gallbladder removed, along with other medical issues.

The intestinal issues made it so I had practically no abdominal muscles, so I easily ruptured a disc in my vertebrae that also went undiagnosed for 3 years due to its complicated nature though not from lack of rigorous testing from many doctors.

But even though I have all these issues that stem from my appendix problems, I am lucky and happy to be alive. Thanks for letting me share my story.

I was also really weak, so I spent the day in bed. I woke in the middle of the night with abdonminal pain,and I started vomiting. My dad gave me alcheselzer, and after a couple hours of rocking in pain, I was able to fall back asleep. When I woke up Sunday morning, the nausea was gone and the pain had subsided. I had the illusion that I was feeling better, so I ate breakfast. Shortly after, the pain came back, and started to feel really week and feverish.

By Monday morning, I was in so much pain that I could not stand up straight. I was running a fever and suffering from violent chills. By that time, I realized that something was seriously wrong with me. My mom took me to the doctor, and I was immediately sent to the emergency room because I had all the classic signs of appendicits. The doctors confirmed I did have appendicitis.

Unfortunately, that happened to be a day when there a lot of emergency surgeries including 4 other appendicitis cases. I got to the emergency room around My appendix had burst by the time I went into surgery.

My anesthesiologist must have messed up the dose of anesthesia because I ended up regaining consciousness while I was still on the operating table. The surgery was finished, but it was not time for me to be concious. It was wierd because at first I heard this girl screaming, then I realized that I was the one screaming and I was screaming because I was in agony. The pain I was in before the surgery which was a 10 on a scale was nothing compared to the agony I was in at that moment.

I was completely aware of everything that was happening around me, but for some reason I could not open my eyes or move any part of my body. I felt the doctors swing me from the operating table to the stretcher. That made the pain even worse.

I screamed in agony as the doctors wheeled me over to the recovery room. When I got to the recovery room, I started coughing a hacking cough that nearly ripped opened my stitches. When the nurse finally gave me morphine, the pain subsided, I was able to open my eyes, and I could move again Thank God I was not paralyzed.

It was a slow recovery. My wounds took about 6 weeks to recoveer. I was benched for the rest of my track season which sucked because I had just been cleared to return to track after a 6-month injury. I also became sickly after the surgery. I got frequent colds, and I was constantly fatigued. I thank God that I lived to tell this story. I asked him what did he eat and did he need to use the bathroom. This went on all night. I described his pain to the ER doctors that he felt like a worm with 1, teeth was eating away at his stomach.

We was told to go home get clear liquids, and it will clear up with in a few hours. I went home, got him some clear liguids and watched over him. I watched my baby suffer. They immediatly took him in and after running alot of test and taking blood, they discovered his appendix had ruptured sometime within 24 hours. When they opened him up the toxic was so bad that they couldnt close his stomach, and he stopped breathing, and was on life support for 10 days.

All of this was 8 days before his 19 birthday. I was told to make final arraingments because he wasnt breathing. But thank God for his Grace and Mercy, he saw it fit and in his will to give me my baby back. We just celebrated his 20th birthday, because his 19th he was on life support.

I wouldnt wish this on anyone. But thank God for having the final say. I am still recovering from my ruptured appendix. It could kill you. Exactly one month ago today I felt pain on the right side of my belly like none other I had ever experienced before. I was having my period and thought that maybe I was experiencing some form of cramping that I had yet to come to know in this lifetime.

No sleep came to me as I moaned through the night. The next day my partner and I decide I needed to go to Urgent Care. Make our way there at about 2: I wonder if my appendix would have ruptured if I had been seen by a doctor 36 hours earlier? Knowing what I know now I would go straight to the ER and bi-pass all the rest that only seemed to keep me from getting the help I needed. I had to have drains put in a week after surgery due to infections in the place where my appendix once was and one on my uterus.

Recently About 3 months ago. I started feeling the pains as well. After about 2 days of these pains, I went to the hospital. They took my blood sample, the doctor poked around. And then prescribed me expensive pills to buy, and told me to come back in 2 weeks for an x-ray. So next day I get up and walk to get these pills at local pharmacy. I went home and took these pills and was not feeling any better the next day. And decided that Its time to go back to the hospital.

Which case I was asked to take blood samples, and a different doctor telling me I had High white blood cell count. And then preformed x-ray on me. The Doctor told me, I had a build up of alot of Feces, And then I felt pretty embarrassed that i was filled with feces.. So he prescribed me a laxative, which then I went to the doctors and got a laxative.

He told me in 5 days I should be better… 5 days later.. I went back to see yet another different doctor. I told her that im pooping, but im not pooping enough to get better. So she gave me a stronger prescription of laxative to get. Then In a few days I should feel better.. I go back to the hospital.

And then A new doctor, Poked me, and pulled her hand away really quick at my right stomach she asked me if that hurt, and i said yes. She comes back about 30 minutes later and tells me I have ruptured appendix start me on IV treatment. So for 2 weeks I was admitted. Then Released without any surger…. And even to this day, Its still in me, and Im scared. My specialist has been on holidays this and that and just waiting to see him is awful.

It aches but it isnt a strong aching feeling just that it kinda aches. And my poop has not been the same since, and with blood in it, which my specialist knows now. So im still really upset that, there really is no ambition anymore to help me. I hope i dont have permanent damage,. Wow, that sounds extremely dangerous. My fiances uncle just died in his early 40s from his appendix rupturing.

I had no clue that this was such a serious complication. He was in pain for a while and like most men, he shrugged it off as him straining a muscle. By then the damage had been done. He also had his stomach pumped from the puss that formed in it. After two weeks of being in the hospital,the worse news comes on Monday, Labor Day just the other day , that our beloved, favorite uncle had passed away.

They beleive he had went into cardiac arrest probably found him when they were doing rounds. I figured that since he made it into the hospital that he would eventually be fine. After reading all the stories, I realize how serious this really is. Wish I knew this before and was able to communicate it to him long before the rupture. Woulda, shoulda, coulda never changed the course of history…. Harlem USA…You will be missed terribly and you are loved!

Wednesday we brought her to the ER due to severe stomach cramps… diagnosis was stomach flu and specifically not appendicitis. From Tuesday until Friday she is laid out on the couch unable move from extreme pain and I have to carry her to the rest room where she can throw up and have diarrhea. It kills me now looking back at what she endured.

So on Friday we take her to a different doctor and just like the other stories on here: IV, CT scan and they find the ruptured appendix.

What is Phentermine?