So, we will use some terms that folks in Europe don't use. The best way for you to find the right agent for you would be to keep making calls before settling. These measurements include jitter, latency, MOS, and lost packets, all of which should remain in optimal operating ranges to ensure quality VoIP service. Even the stems and leaves are shaped and cut to achieve a dense look. It is important to finalize your guest list sooner so that you can work with a fixed budget once you interview a caterer. The exact opposite is actually true. This page is part of an amateur website devoted to promoting and displaying low sodium products www.
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Some are very plain and functional, while some are pieces of art in themselves. Nearly any material can be used, so long as it can tolerate the excess heat and is in keeping with safety codes. An important property of light fixtures is the luminous efficacy or wall-plug efficiency , meaning the amount of usable light emanating from the fixture per used energy, usually measured in lumen per watt.
A fixture using replaceable light sources can also have its efficiency quoted as the percentage of light passed from the "bulb" to the surroundings. The more transparent the lighting fixture is, the higher efficacy.
Shading the light will normally decrease efficacy but increase the directionality and the visual comfort probability. Color temperature for white light sources also affects their use for certain applications. The color temperature of a white light source is the temperature in kelvins of a theoretical black body emitter that most closely matches the spectral characteristics of the lamp.
An incandescent bulb has a color temperature around to kelvins; daylight is around kelvins. Lower color temperature lamps have relatively more energy in the yellow and red part of the visible spectrum, while high color temperatures correspond to lamps with more of a blue-white appearance.
For critical inspection or color matching tasks, or for retail displays of food and clothing, the color temperature of the lamps will be selected for the best overall lighting effect. Lighting is classified by intended use as general, accent, or task lighting, depending largely on the distribution of the light produced by the fixture. Forms of lighting include alcove lighting, which like most other uplighting is indirect.
This is often done with fluorescent lighting first available at the World's Fair or rope light , occasionally with neon lighting , and recently with LED strip lighting. It is a form of backlighting. Soffit or close to wall lighting can be general or a decorative wall-wash, sometimes used to bring out texture like stucco or plaster on a wall, though this may also show its defects as well.
The effect depends heavily on the exact type of lighting source used. Recessed lighting often called "pot lights" in Canada , "can lights" or 'high hats" in the US is popular, with fixtures mounted into the ceiling structure so as to appear flush with it. These downlights can use narrow beam spotlights, or wider- angle floodlights , both of which are bulbs having their own reflectors.
There are also downlights with internal reflectors designed to accept common 'A' lamps light bulbs which are generally less costly than reflector lamps. Track lighting , invented by Lightolier ,  was popular at one period of time because it was much easier to install than recessed lighting, and individual fixtures are decorative and can be easily aimed at a wall.
It has regained some popularity recently in low-voltage tracks, which often look nothing like their predecessors because they do not have the safety issues that line-voltage systems have, and are therefore less bulky and more ornamental in themselves. A master transformer feeds all of the fixtures on the track or rod with 12 or 24 volts, instead of each light fixture having its own line-to-low voltage transformer. There are traditional spots and floods, as well as other small hanging fixtures.
A modified version of this is cable lighting , where lights are hung from or clipped to bare metal cables under tension. A sconce is a wall-mounted fixture, particularly one that shines up and sometimes down as well.
A torchère is an uplight intended for ambient lighting. It is typically a floor lamp but may be wall-mounted like a sconce. Further interior light fixtures include chandeliers, pendant lights, ceiling fans with lights, close-to-ceiling or flush lights, and various types of lamps . The portable or table lamp is probably the most common fixture, found in many homes and offices.
The standard lamp and shade that sits on a table is general lighting, while the desk lamp is considered task lighting. Magnifier lamps are also task lighting. The illuminated ceiling was once popular in the s and s but fell out of favor after the s.
This uses diffuser panels hung like a suspended ceiling below fluorescent lights, and is considered general lighting. Other forms include neon, which is not usually intended to illuminate anything else, but to actually be an artwork in itself.
This would probably fall under accent lighting, though in a dark nightclub it could be considered general lighting. In a movie theater , steps in the aisles are usually marked with a row of small lights for convenience and safety, when the film has started and the other lights are off.
Traditionally made up of small low wattage, low voltage lamps in a track or translucent tube, these are rapidly being replaced with LED based versions. Street Lights are used to light roadways and walkways at night. Some manufacturers are designing LED and photovoltaic luminaires to provide an energy-efficient alternative to traditional street light fixtures.
Floodlights can be used to illuminate work zones  or outdoor playing fields during nighttime hours. Beacon lights are positioned at the intersection of two roads to aid in navigation.
Sometimes security lighting can be used along roadways in urban areas, or behind homes or commercial facilities. These are extremely bright lights used to deter crime. Security lights may include floodlights. Entry lights can be used outside to illuminate and signal the entrance to a property. Vehicles typically include headlamps and tail lights.
Headlamps are white or selective yellow lights placed in the front of the vehicle, designed to illuminate the upcoming road and to make the vehicle more visible. Many manufactures are turning to LED headlights as an energy-efficient alternative to traditional headlamps. White rear-facing reversing lamps indicate that the vehicle's transmission has been placed in the reverse gear, warning anyone behind the vehicle that it is moving backwards, or about to do so.
Flashing turn signals on the front, side, and rear of the vehicle indicate an intended change of position or direction.
In the late s, some automakers began to use electroluminescent technology to backlight their cars' speedometers and other gauges or to draw attention to logos or other decorative elements. Commonly called 'light bulbs', lamps are the removable and replaceable part of a light fixture, which converts electrical energy into electromagnetic radiation. While lamps have traditionally been rated and marketed primarily in terms of their power consumption, expressed in watts , proliferation of lighting technology beyond the incandescent light bulb has eliminated the correspondence of wattage to the amount of light produced.
Each of these technologies has a different efficacy in converting electrical energy to visible light. Visible light output is typically measured in lumens. This unit only quantifies the visible radiation, and excludes invisible infrared and ultraviolet light.
A wax candle produces on the close order of 13 lumens, a 60 watt incandescent lamp makes around lumens, and a watt compact fluorescent lamp produces about lumens, but actual output varies by specific design.
Lighting design as it applies to the built environment is known as 'architectural lighting design'. Lighting of structures considers aesthetic elements as well as practical considerations of quantity of light required, occupants of the structure, energy efficiency and cost. Artificial lighting takes into account the amount of daylight received in an internal space by using Daylight factor calculation. For simple installations, hand-calculations based on tabular data are used to provide an acceptable lighting design.
More critical or optimized designs now routinely use mathematical modeling on a computer using software such as Radiance which can allow an Architect to quickly undertake complex calculations to review the benefit of a particular design. In addition to paint, reflective surfaces also have an effect on lighting design.
Photometric studies also sometimes referred to as "layouts" or "point by points" are often used to simulate lighting designs for projects before they are built or renovated. This enables architects, designers, and engineers to determine which configuration of lighting fixtures will deliver the amount of light needed. Other parameters that can be determined are the contrast ratio between light and dark areas. Depending on the building type, client, or safety requirements, different design aspects may be emphasized for safety or practicality.
Specialized software is often used to create these, which typically combine the use of two-dimensional CAD drawings and lighting calculation software i. AGi32 , Visual, Dialux. Lighting illuminates the performers and artists in a live theatre, dance, or musical performance, and is selected and arranged to create dramatic effects.
Stage lighting uses general illumination technology in devices configured for easy adjustment of their output characteristics. Dimmers, colored filters, reflectors, lenses, motorized or manually aimed lamps, and different kinds of flood and spot lights are among the tools used by a stage lighting designer to produce the desired effects.
A set of lighting cues are prepared so that the lighting operator can control the lights in step with the performance; complex theatre lighting systems use computer control of lighting instruments. Motion picture and television production use many of the same tools and methods of stage lighting. Especially in the early days of these industries, very high light levels were required and heat produced by lighting equipment presented substantial challenges.
Modern cameras require less light, and modern light sources emit less heat. Measurement of light or photometry is generally concerned with the amount of useful light falling on a surface and the amount of light emerging from a lamp or other source, along with the colors that can be rendered by this light.
The human eye responds differently to light from different parts of the visible spectrum, therefore photometric measurements must take the luminosity function into account when measuring the amount of useful light. The basic SI unit of measurement is the candela cd , which describes the luminous intensity, all other photometric units are derived from the candela. Luminance for instance is a measure of the density of luminous intensity in a given direction. It describes the amount of light that passes through or is emitted from a particular area, and falls within a given solid angle.
The amount of useful light emitted from a source or the luminous flux is measured in lumen lm. The SI unit of illuminance and luminous emittance , being the luminous power per area, is measured in Lux. It is used in photometry as a measure of the intensity, as perceived by the human eye, of light that hits or passes through a surface. It is analogous to the radiometric unit watts per square metre, but with the power at each wavelength weighted according to the luminosity function , a standardized model of human visual brightness perception.
In English, "lux" is used in both singular and plural. Several measurement methods have been developed to control glare resulting from indoor lighting design. In addition to these new methods, four main factors influence the degree of discomfort glare; the luminance of the glare source, the solid angle of the glare source, the background luminance, and the position of the glare source in the field of view must all be taken into account.
However, these two metrics, developed in the last century, are facing increased challenges and criticisms as new types of light sources, particularly light emitting diodes LEDs , become more prevalent in the market.
For example, in order to meet the expectations for good color rendering in retail applications, research  suggests using the well-established CRI along with another metric called gamut area index GAI. GAI represents the relative separation of object colors illuminated by a light source; the greater the GAI, the greater the apparent saturation or vividness of the object colors.
Typical measurements of light have used a Dosimeter. Dosimeters measure an individual's or an object's exposure to something in the environment, such as light dosimeters and ultraviolet dosimeters. In order to specifically measure the amount of light entering the eye, personal circadian light meter called the Daysimeter has been developed.
The small, head-mounted device measures an individual's daily rest and activity patterns, as well as exposure to short-wavelength light that stimulates the circadian system. The device measures activity and light together at regular time intervals and electronically stores and logs its operating temperature. The Daysimeter can gather data for up to 30 days for analysis. Specification of illumination requirements is the basic concept of deciding how much illumination is required for a given task.
Clearly, much less light is required to illuminate a hallway compared to that needed for a word processing work station. Generally speaking, the energy expended is proportional to the design illumination level.
For example, a lighting level of lux might be chosen for a work environment involving meeting rooms and conferences, whereas a level of 80 lux could be selected for building hallways. Unfortunately, most of the lighting standards even today have been specified by industrial groups who manufacture and sell lighting, so that a historical commercial bias exists in designing most building lighting, especially for office and industrial settings.
Lighting control systems reduce energy usage and cost by helping to provide light only when and where it is needed. Lighting control systems typically incorporate the use of time schedules, occupancy control, and photocell control i. Some systems also support demand response and will automatically dim or turn off lights to take advantage of utility incentives. Lighting control systems are sometimes incorporated into larger building automation systems. Many newer control systems are using wireless mesh open standards such as ZigBee ,  which provides benefits including easier installation no need to run control wires and interoperability with other standards-based building control systems e.
In response to daylighting technology, daylight harvesting systems have been developed to further reduce energy consumption. These technologies are helpful, but they do have their downfalls.
Many times, rapid and frequent switching of the lights on and off can occur, particularly during unstable weather conditions or when daylight levels are changing around the switching illuminance. Not only does this disturb occupants, it can also reduce lamp life. A variation of this technology is the 'differential switching or dead-band' photoelectric control which has multiple illuminances it switches from so as not to disturb occupants as much.
Occupancy sensors to allow operation for whenever someone is within the area being scanned can control lighting.
When motion can no longer be detected, the lights shut off. Passive infrared sensors react to changes in heat, such as the pattern created by a moving person. The control must have an unobstructed view of the building area being scanned.
Doors, partitions, stairways, etc. The best applications for passive infrared occupancy sensors are open spaces with a clear view of the area being scanned. Ultrasonic sensors transmit sound above the range of human hearing and monitor the time it takes for the sound waves to return. A break in the pattern caused by any motion in the area triggers the control.
Ultrasonic sensors can see around obstructions and are best for areas with cabinets and shelving, restrooms, and open areas requiring degree coverage. Some occupancy sensors utilize both passive infrared and ultrasonic technology, but are usually more expensive.
They can be used to control one lamp, one fixture or many fixtures. Daylighting is the oldest method of interior lighting. Daylighting is simply designing a space to use as much natural light as possible. This decreases energy consumption and costs, and requires less heating and cooling from the building. Daylighting has also been proven to have positive effects on patients in hospitals as well as work and school performance.
Due to a lack of information that indicate the likely energy savings, daylighting schemes are not yet popular among most buildings. In recent years light emitting diodes LEDs are becoming increasingly efficient leading to an extraordinary increase in the use of solid state lighting. In many situations, controlling the light emission of LEDs may be done most effectively by using the principles of nonimaging optics. It is valuable to provide the correct light intensity and color spectrum for each task or environment.
Otherwise, energy not only could be wasted but over-illumination can lead to adverse health and psychological effects. Beyond the energy factors being considered, it is important not to over-design illumination, lest adverse health effects such as headache frequency, stress, and increased blood pressure be induced by the higher lighting levels. In addition, glare or excess light can decrease worker efficiency. Analysis of lighting quality particularly emphasizes use of natural lighting, but also considers spectral content if artificial light is to be used.
Not only will greater reliance on natural light reduce energy consumption, but will favorably impact human health and performance. New studies have shown that the performance of students is influenced by the time and duration of daylight in their regular schedules. Designing school facilities to incorporate the right types of light at the right time of day for the right duration may improve student performance and well-being.
An Administrative Waiver , with permit conditions, must be obtained prior to construction for the use of a lift station.
Check with your local building department for all other plumbing issues. Such systems must be designed to not hold liquid waste in the overhead line when not in use. Condensate lines from refrigeration, when precluded from drainage by gravity indirect to sewer, may utilize evaporative pans, small automatic pumps, or vacuum evacuation systems.
Provide a scupper drain in the bar top over each jockey pour station, plumbed with rigid piping to a floor sink with a proper air gap provided. To be installed so that gun hoses do not come into contact with the drink ice and the gun cup holder cannot be located over the ice bin. Soil and waste lines cannot be installed over food preparation, storage, or equipment and utensil cleaning areas, or over food receiving areas, transport corridors or routes, unless separated by the floor immediately above or acceptable means approved by the Health Authority i.
Vacuum evacuation system lines are not considered overhead waste lines. Ceilings may be less than 8 feet high in food establishments, provided lighting and ventilation are adequate, and food handlers are able to walk in a fully upright position.
Floors may be tiled, poured epoxy, or sealed concrete, or other reviewed and approved finish. Wet zone floors finished in tile must use epoxy grout.
All wall surfaces must be smooth, non-absorbent, durable, washable and light in color and sealed with at least an oil base enamel paint or epoxy. All wet zones area such as three-compartment sinks dishwashers, hand sinks, horizontal and vertical surfaces of inside the bar dies must be covered with an impervious material like Fiber Reinforced Paneling F.
Other wall surface materials are subject to evaluation and approval prior to installation. Consideration will be given in regard wall, floor, and ceiling finish materials, colors, and patterns in customer interface areas, provided the given material is non-toxic, smooth, non-absorbent, durable, and washable.
Doors and other openings to the outside shall be tight-fitting and self-closing. Automatic air current devices fly fans are required when openings open directly into food zones such as preparation, storage and dishwashing areas.
Screen doors, when used, must open outward and material shall not be less than 16 meshes per inch. Alternate means of vermin and dust control may be considered as part of a comprehensive operational plan.
Approval of such a plan requires administrative review and may be subject to permit conditions. An Administrative Waiver , with permit conditions, must be obtained prior to construction.
Employees' Toilet Facilities which are adequate and conveniently located shall be provided. Toilet rooms shall be completely enclosed with a tight-fitting, self-closing door. Restroom may not enter directly into the food preparation or warewashing areas.
A vestibule with two doors may be used. Restrooms must be provided with mechanical ventilation exhaust fan. All fixtures in restrooms must be sealed to the floor or wall. Hand sinks shall have tempered or hot and cold running water and soap and towel dispensers. Hot or tempered water must be available within 20 seconds. Faucets with automatic shut-off must run for a minimum of 20 seconds.
Customer restrooms, one for each gender, are required in all food establishments that offer 10 or more seats to the public for consumption of food or drink that is prepared on the premises. Outdoor seating within 25 feet of the establishment will be counted, unless it can be established that the seating is not for use by the establishment. Food establishments that are located in indoors malls or food courts that have common restroom access clauses in their lease agreements.
Wait seating in take-out only establishments will not be counted seating for consumption. Establishments with nine or fewer seats must provide at least one customer restroom. Food establishments, located within theme parks and entertainment complexes, may utilize centrally located restrooms that are reasonably accessible.
Customers restrooms can double as employee restrooms, but customers cannot enter the kitchen or other back-of-the-house areas to access the restrooms. At least foot candles of light are required at a surface where food handlers are working with FOOD, ware washing, utensils, or equipment including but not limited to knives, slicers, grinders, or saws where employee safety is a factor. At least 20 foot-candles of light are required in all other areas, including dining areas during cleaning operations, equipment storage areas, dry food storage areas, sales areas, toilet rooms, all types of refrigerators, and all other non-food preparation areas.
Light fixtures in the food preparation areas must be shielded. Special attention should be given to the lighting of areas that may have light from overhead fixtures blocked from working surfaces e.
Adequate and sufficient exhaust and fresh air intake ventilation shall be provided in food preparation areas, food serving areas, utensil washing rooms, dressing rooms, and garbage and rubbish rooms. Ventilation hoods with adequate mechanical exhaust shall be required above all cooking equipment such as ranges, griddles, broilers, hot top ranges, deep fat fryers, barbecues, rotisseries, soup kettles, hot-water sanitizing dishwashers, etc.
Hoods must comply with current building department and fire codes. Exposed vertical or horizontal pipes and lines should be kept to a minimum and at least six inches above the floor and a half inch from the wall and adjacent pipes to facilitate cleaning.
Openings for utility lines through floors and walls and ceilings must be appropriately sealed. Syrup and beverage lines must run through cleanable, rigid conduit, and must be sealed and capped at each end to prevent the accumulation of debris therein and preclude the harborage of vermin Gas line connections for manual shut-off valves are to be installed at equipment so as to be accessible, but not in a manner that makes cleaning the area difficult or impossible.
Flexible gas lines must be smooth and cleanable. These shut-off valves are not emergency shut -offs. Conduit installations in range hoods and walk-in refrigeration units should have adequate enclosed space provided for this purpose. Conduit and plumbing runs left exposed on walls must use stand-off anchors to allow for cleaning around the coudit or pipe. Vacuum breakers are required wherever submerged inlets occur or back siphonage into the fresh water line may be possible i.
Reduced pressure zone RPZ backflow prevention assemblies are required to be installed on the potable water line s between the water line and the carbonator being connected to a drink machine. There shall be no copper lines or brass fittings installed between the water line s and the carbonator. The RPZ valves must be tested upon installation, and annually thereafter, by a certified back flow assembly tester.
When required by the building department or water reclamation authority, must be installed outside the building whenever possible, but in no case can they be located where food is prepared or stored, or where utensils or tableware is washed or stored. Alternate methods of grease disposal grease machines may be located within food establishments, but must be so noted on the plans as submitted and be specifically approved prior to installation. Garbage storage areas shall be enclosed and, where approved by the agency of jurisdiction, be equipped with adequate drainage to the sewer.
Garbage Disposers Are Not Allowed: All copper lines shall be coated, wrapped, or otherwise protected from oxidation when located in food preparation, storage utensil washing, or other areas where incidental contact with food or food contact surfaces may occur.
When copper lines are used they must be properly encapsulated with an approved material to prevent corrosion. A vertical food shield shall be deemed "adequate" when it measures 5 feet from the top of the shield to the floor. A lesser vertical height may be considered when an adequate horizontal piece is added to the top of the shield.
Food shields must have end caps if the end of the unit is subject to access by customers. Metals such as brass and copper, even on properly finished and approved equipment, may be subject to corrosion and the production of toxic oxides when used for food service equipment such as food shields in the presence of excessive heat and moisture. Special care may be required to prevent oxidation from occurring and causing corrosion to build up on metal surfaces. The presence of these toxic compounds on a food shield will result in a critical violation during operational inspections, and may result in replacement or refurbishment of the food shield.
Tanks used as life support for animals intended for human consumptions shall meet the following criteria: Mulluscan shellstock tanks must be separate from, and share no water with, tanks for crustaceans of fin fish. Holding tanks and stands shall be made of impervious, non-toxic, non-corrosive materials, and be constructed to allow regular cleaning and sanitizing.
Approved materials include tempered glass, acrylic, polyester or epoxy gel coated fiber glass, or other material approved by the Health Authority. Filtration systems shall be designed for a minimum water turn-over rate of six hours and shall be fitted with flow meters to monitor the turn-over rates.
Filtration and pumping systems shall be submitted to plan review for approval. The design shall ensure adequate oxygenation of the water. Ultra-violet disinfection systems shall: Be provided and sized for flow rate and be compatible with the pump. A flow meter shall be installed between the filter and the UV system. Pumps shall meet UL Standard If chiller systems are provided they shall be designed for use with potable water systems and be resistant to the corrosive effects of salt water.
Adequate drainage to sewer shall be provided to accommodate backwashing of filter systems and tank drainage. Drainage to sewer shall be indirect to a floor sink or trough drain. Floor sinks shall be provided with appropriately sized mesh insert to prevent scales from clogging the drains.
Shellstock, in spray type re-circulating wet storage systems, shall be supplied with water that is sprayed in a fan shape and stored in approved trays at a minimum of 3 inches off the bottom of the tank to prevent submersion of shellstock.