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Carbohydrate
Crystallization at temperatures above the solubility maximum results in formation of pure fcc C Currently, there is no commercial kit available. See the full list of chemistry topics at the site map! This confusion persists as today some nutritionists use the term complex carbohydrate to refer to any sort of digestible saccharide present in a whole food, where fiber, vitamins and minerals are also found as opposed to processed carbohydrates, which provide energy but few other nutrients. The C 72 structure is also in this class, but the endohedral version with a trapped lanthanide -group atom is soluble due to the interaction of the metal atom and the electronic states of the fullerene.

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If the functional group is present in bonding with another sugar unit, it is called a reducing disaccharide or biose. Carbohydrate consumed in food yields 3. Lower amounts of carbohydrate are usually associated with unrefined foods, including beans, tubers, rice, and unrefined fruit. Organisms typically cannot metabolize all types of carbohydrate to yield energy.

Glucose is a nearly universal and accessible source of energy. Many organisms also have the ability to metabolize other monosaccharides and disaccharides but glucose is often metabolized first. In Escherichia coli , for example, the lac operon will express enzymes for the digestion of lactose when it is present, but if both lactose and glucose are present the lac operon is repressed, resulting in the glucose being used first see: Polysaccharides are also common sources of energy.

Many organisms can easily break down starches into glucose; most organisms, however, cannot metabolize cellulose or other polysaccharides like chitin and arabinoxylans. These carbohydrate types can be metabolized by some bacteria and protists. Ruminants and termites , for example, use microorganisms to process cellulose. Even though these complex carbohydrates are not very digestible, they represent an important dietary element for humans, called dietary fiber.

Fiber enhances digestion, among other benefits. Nutritionists often refer to carbohydrates as either simple or complex. However, the exact distinction between these groups can be ambiguous.

The term complex carbohydrate was first used in the U. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs publication Dietary Goals for the United States where it was intended to distinguish sugars from other carbohydrates which were perceived to be nutritionally superior.

This confusion persists as today some nutritionists use the term complex carbohydrate to refer to any sort of digestible saccharide present in a whole food, where fiber, vitamins and minerals are also found as opposed to processed carbohydrates, which provide energy but few other nutrients. The standard usage, however, is to classify carbohydrates chemically: In any case, the simple vs.

The speed of digestion is determined by a variety of factors including which other nutrients are consumed with the carbohydrate, how the food is prepared, individual differences in metabolism, and the chemistry of the carbohydrate.

The USDA's Dietary Guidelines for Americans call for moderate- to high-carbohydrate consumption from a balanced diet that includes six one-ounce servings of grain foods each day, at least half from whole grain sources and the rest from enriched. The glycemic index GI and glycemic load concepts have been developed to characterize food behavior during human digestion.

They rank carbohydrate-rich foods based on the rapidity and magnitude of their effect on blood glucose levels. Glycemic index is a measure of how quickly food glucose is absorbed, while glycemic load is a measure of the total absorbable glucose in foods.

The insulin index is a similar, more recent classification method that ranks foods based on their effects on blood insulin levels, which are caused by glucose or starch and some amino acids in food.

Carbohydrates are a common source of energy in living organisms; however, no single carbohydrate is an essential nutrient in humans. Following a diet consisting of very low amounts of daily carbohydrate for several days will usually result in higher levels of blood ketone bodies than an isocaloric diet with similar protein content.

This relatively high level of ketone bodies is commonly known as ketosis and is very often confused with the potentially fatal condition often seen in type 1 diabetics known as diabetic ketoacidosis.

Somebody suffering ketoacidosis will have much higher levels of blood ketone bodies along with high blood sugar, dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Long-chain fatty acids cannot cross the blood—brain barrier , but the liver can break these down to produce ketones.

However, the medium-chain fatty acids octanoic and heptanoic acids can cross the barrier and be used by the brain, which normally relies upon glucose for its energy. Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation , breakdown and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms.

The most important carbohydrate is glucose , a simple sugar monosaccharide that is metabolized by nearly all known organisms. Glucose and other carbohydrates are part of a wide variety of metabolic pathways across species: Plant components are consumed by animals and fungi , and used as fuel for cellular respiration. Catabolism is the metabolic reaction which cells undergo to break down larger molecules, extracting energy. There are two major metabolic pathways of monosaccharide catabolism: The monosaccharide units can then enter into monosaccharide catabolism.

Carbohydrate chemistry is a large and economically important branch of organic chemistry. Some of the main organic reactions that involve carbohydrates are:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 6 September This article may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies.

Please help improve it by rewriting it in an neutral presentation that contextualizes different points of view. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: International Journal of Obesity. Introduction to Biochemistry 2nd ed. A Textbook of Botany for Colleges and Universities. Tietz fundamentals of clinical chemistry.

Carbohydrates in human nutrition. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Essentials of Glycobiology 3rd ed. Cold Spring Harbor NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Stereochemistry of the Monosaccharides". The C 60 derivatives can be delivered to the cells by using the functional groups L-phenylalanine , folic acid , and L-arginine among others. Cancer cells take up these molecules at an increased rate because of an upregulation of transporters in the cancer cell, in this case amino acid transporters will bring in the L-arginine and L-phenylalanine functional groups of the fullerenes.

Once absorbed by the cells, the C 60 derivatives would react to light radiation by turning molecular oxygen into reactive oxygen which triggers apoptosis in the HeLa cells and other cancer cells that can absorb the fullerene molecule. This research shows that a reactive substance can target cancer cells and then be triggered by light radiation, minimizing damage to surrounding tissues while undergoing treatment. When absorbed by cancer cells and exposed to light radiation, the reaction that creates reactive oxygen damages the DNA, proteins, and lipids that make up the cancer cell.

This cellular damage forces the cancerous cell to go through apoptosis, which can lead to the reduction in size of a tumor. Once the light radiation treatment is finished the fullerene will reabsorb the free radicals to prevent damage of other tissues.

As this research continues, the treatment may penetrate deeper into the body and be absorbed by cancer cells more effectively. A comprehensive and recent review on fullerene toxicity is given by Lalwani et al. The toxicity of these carbon nanoparticles is not only dose and time-dependent, but also depends on a number of other factors such as: The authors therefore recommend that pharmacology of every new fullerene- or metallofullerene-based complex must be assessed individually as a different compound.

Examples of fullerenes in popular culture are numerous. Fullerenes appeared in fiction well before scientists took serious interest in them. In a humorously speculative column for New Scientist , David Jones suggested that it may be possible to create giant hollow carbon molecules by distorting a plane hexagonal net by the addition of impurity atoms.

On 4 September , Google used an interactively rotatable fullerene [66] C 60 as the second 'o' in their logo to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the discovery of the fullerenes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This rotating model of a carbon nanotube shows its 3D structure. This section relies too much on references to primary sources.

Please improve this section by adding secondary or tertiary sources. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: Solubility reported sans method to the thousandth of a mg is simply silly Please help improve this section if you can.

Health and safety hazards of nanomaterials and Toxicology of carbon nanomaterials. Journal of Crystal Growth. Retrieved 28 October Journal of Organic Chemistry. Archived from the original on 15 June Retrieved 7 February Archived from the original on 13 October Archived from the original on 18 June Retrieved 29 August Inorganic Chemistry 3rd ed.

New Dimensions in Carbon Materials". Journal of Physical Chemistry A. Molecule of the Month". Retrieved 4 July Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. Research in Fullerene Chemistry" http: Archived from the original on 28 March Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Comparison with diamond on hardness and wear". Diamond and Related Materials. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. An improbable, egg-shaped endohedral fullerene that violates the isolated pentagon rule". Journal of the American Chemical Society.

Evidence from Extraterrestrial Noble Gases in Fullerenes". Journal of Chemical Physics. Fullerenes, Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures.

Journal of Physical Chemistry. Fullerene Science and Technology. Journal of Physical Chemistry B. Perspectives of Fullerene Nanotechnology.

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Mexican Biodiversity - What is the Biosphere? National Geographic - Biosphere. Help us improve this article! Contact our editors with your feedback. Introduction The diversity of life The organization of the biosphere Natural groupings Processes of evolution The importance of the biosphere Resources of the biosphere The flow of energy The photosynthetic process Efficiency of solar energy utilization Energy transfers and pyramids Nutrient cycling The carbon cycle The nitrogen cycle The sulfur cycle The cycling of phosphorus and other essential nutrients The hydrologic cycle Links among the cycles Environmental conditions Temperature Humidity ph Salinity Water currents Pressure Atmospheric pressure Hydrostatic pressure.

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