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This course surveys a range of legal topics in this field, such as: FDA regulation of drugs and devices, regulation of medical research, products liability, insurance coverage of pharmaceuticals, intellectual property, and genetics.

As recent events in the financial world so dramatically illustrate, effective and consistent regulation affects the global economy, helping to determine whether people enjoy any financial stability in their everyday lives. This occurs due to fraud, negligent misrepresentation, and interference with contract.

At the same time, tort law has been reluctant to interfere when the parties are in a contractual relationship and the risk of loss has been or could have been addressed by agreement of the parties in their contract.

Thus, when the only harm caused is economic loss, such as lost profits, identity theft, a loss of an inheritance, the benefit of the bargain in a contract, an opportunity to start a new business, or a product that does not perform as it should have, tort law has been very restrictive about providing relief, leaving most of such harm to contract law or uncompensated.

This course will cover the areas in which tort law does provide protection and for pure economic loss and the areas in which it has deferred to contract. Students will be required to draft and evaluate typical documents including corporate documents, loan and purchase contracts, partnership agreements, and employment agreements.

Does not satisfy the upper-level writing requirement. Students will review procedural principles like "what court" and "where" and best pleading practices. The course will cover business litigation involving creditors' rights, business "splits," contract disputes, and other common business disputes resulting in litigation. The director of the externship designates one or more cities in North and South Carolina, usually including Charlotte, NC, and offers the students externships in a designated practice area.

The practice areas vary from summer to summer. Students meet weekly with the director to integrate and apply the doctrinal insights received elsewhere in the law school curriculum and in the subject matter of the field placements. The course fulfills the practical skills requirement. Students study the various models for representing children - as lawyer advocate, as lawyer guardian ad litem, and as non-lawyer guardian ad litem — and analyze the ethical issues raised in the various settings.

Students also study the procedural and substantive law involved in deciding the custody issue in both the family law and the domestic violence settings and in representing children in the educational setting. Students spend an average of 8 to 10 hours a week in their field work. An equal purpose is to expose and examine how churches are treated differently — either more or less demandingly.

It is here -- at the points of legal difference -- that we can see how society truly values religion in relation to other interests that compete for the attention, primacy, and recourses of people and government. The class in past years has analyzed inequalities in schools, housing, voting, immigration, and criminal justice, but exact topics are determined by current students.

Readings will include edited Supreme Court opinions, but most of the readings will be excerpts from books and articles. Grades are based on class participation and a paper there is a long-paper option for those wishing to satisfy the upper level writing requirement; students can otherwise choose the option of a short paper and a group project. The Art of Persuasion 2 hours Classical rhetoric is the art of proper persuasion and therefore central not only to the practice of law but to social life itself.

Litigation, negotiation, public speaking as well as interactions with clients, colleagues, teachers, students, government, and all others encountered in daily life require proper and effective rhetoric. Such rhetoric is much more substantive than mere style. Its basic principles were refined by the ancient Greeks and Romans who understood its critical role in good citizenship, good government and in the good life.

This course will study these basic principles of persuasion and their application in legal arguments, court decisions, famous speeches and other materials and will practice putting these principles into application with the hope of not only improving legal skills but life skills as well.

The course will provide an understanding of Collaborative Practice and its relationship to other dispute resolution processes, including arbitration, mediation, litigation and adversarial negotiation; it will also help students develop the skills to act as dispute resolution advocates and as effective collaborative professionals.

The course will use simulation and role play to enable students to practice collaborative negotiation and problem-solving skills, both individually and in small groups. Students will be evaluated based on an on-going journal maintained by the student reflecting on the information and exercises in each class, an end-of-semester paper of pages, and participation in class and in simulations.

Successful completion of the course will meet the International Academy of Collaborative Professionals' minimum practice standards and will provide students with knowledge of the theories, practices and skills needed to utilize Collaborative Practice in any civil dispute, including construction, employment, trusts and estates, medical error, and general business disputes.

Items studied and drafting exercises include: The course covers various forms of commercial leases, including ground leases, retail leases, subleases, and license and occupancy agreements. This course also focuses upon professionalism and ethics in the negotiation and drafting process. In addition to learning applicable law, students receive regular evaluation of substantial drafting and negotiation assignments typical of those encountered in actual practice. The negotiation and drafting skills learned in this course apply to other areas of commercial practice.

Students will assist clients at various stages in the business development process, with an emphasis on business, housing, and institutional support in economically disadvantaged segments of the community.

It will consider the purposes for which constitutions are established, and the processes of constitution-making and constitutional change. Students will write a paper contrasting the constitutional law on a particular topic of a given country with the comparable law in the United States. Weekly films will explore the culture of the countries selected by the students for their papers.

We compare legal controls on police investigations; the roles of judges, prosecutors, and defense attorneys in different systems; and major phases of the adjudication process. There are many similarities between the ethical rules governing American lawyers and their counterparts in other countries, but also significant differences. For example, attorneys in Italy were not allowed to advertise on television until fairly recently—imagine a world without lawyers advertising on TV.

Assessment will be primarily based on a final, self-scheduled exam after your return from Venice and secondarily on short group assignments. This course will be offered for a grade.

You were exposed to some of these exceptions in 1L Torts--e. The aim of the course is to provide background and analytical tools necessary to understand what is causal proportional liability and how it can contribute to tort law given its alternatives , and to critically examine whether and to what extent domestic law, as well the laws of other countries, embrace this kind of liability. At first, the different goals of tort law are shortly discussed welfare-enhancement, fairness, freedom, equality, common-good.

A substantial portion of the course covers class actions. The goal is to provide a focus on the critical components of corporations that rely on compliance and discuss how that translates into opportunities for lawyers. Specifically, the course will focus on the governance structure of compliance and risk management as well as best practices. This will include how programs are operated, monitored, and tested while leveraging case studies and guest speakers.

Federal rules will also be utilized to understand the practical application of compliance within organizations so as to enable students to understand the role compliance plays in the overall success and sustainability of an organization.

The course also focuses on types of constitutional argument and analysis. Students also study types of constitutional arguments and analysis. In addition to exploring applicable law and theory, students analyze, draft, redline, and actively discuss actual commercial contracts.

In so doing, students explore both the specific effects of various contractual provisions and the potential broader commercial implications of such provisions. This course is a writing course with no exam. Contracts I and II are prerequisites. Copyright law for music has evolved in a way that provides the perfect vehicle for not only IP education, but a broader legal education, because it has layered ownership rights in unique ways and has balanced those rights with a system of compulsory licenses and statutory royalties in lieu of technical infringements.

It also explores enforcement of copyright, the impact of new technologies, and issues relating to access and use of copyrightable subject matter. This course may be used to satisfy the upper-level writing requirement.

This course will emphasize the role that lawyers play in structuring and implementing financial transactions for corporations. The course prepares students whose careers will require interaction with business interests and corporate clients.

It will also survey judicial action ranging from pre-judgment attachment to post-judgment execution, and it will review an array of other judicial and non-judicial remedies.

The bankruptcy coverage will focus fairly equally on consumer and business bankruptcies. It will consider both liquidation and reorganization under Chapters 7, 13, and Class discussion illuminates the ways in which the writers get the issues right — and wrong. Although primarily a drafting class, it will also include at least one oral component. The course will also feature several guest speakers from both the prosecution and defense bars as well as the trial or appellate bench. These speakers will provide practical insights into the drafting of documents in the world of criminal litigation as well as methods of persuading in criminal cases.

Students will have complete at least two independent writing projects and one oral presentation. Each of these efforts will be individually critiqued.

Students will also be exposed to specific topics in advanced legal analysis, writing, and persuasion. Students will gain the practical skills that will help them succeed in criminal litigation. Students will hone their written advocacy skills in the context of practical criminal litigation. The initial class sessions will involve a factual and legal scenario that will form the basis for sessions on brainstorming, litigation strategies, issue formulation, and research planning. The two writing projects will involve two different research problems and the preparations of a motion to suppress evidence and a motion in limine.

Students will draft a motion with an accompanying memorandum of law for either the prosecution or the defense regarding each of these two research problems. Students will also make a formal oral argument on one of the two motions in a litigation setting before a sitting judge or practicing attorney. Students who have taken Criminal Procedure: Investigation or Criminal Procedure: Adjudication in the past or those who are currently enrolled in either of those two courses may not register for Criminal Procedure Survey.

Topics will be chosen from the following: Students who have taken Criminal Procedure Survey in the past or those who are currently enrolled in Criminal Procedure Survey may not register for Criminal Procedure: Investigation is not a pre-requisite for this course. Investigation 3 hours A study of legal and institutional limits on law enforcement conduct in the investigation of crime, with particular focus on the constitutional limits established by the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments.

Topics include searches and seizures, police interrogations, and the identification of suspects. The topics covered in recent years have included sentencing law, police accountability, and the jurisprudence of the death penalty. Enrollment with permission of the instructor. The study is cross-racial, comparative, and proactive, analyzing the converging and diverging experiences of indigenous peoples: Various multi-lateral initiatives, such as the Vienna Convention on Contracts for the Sale of Goods, will be discussed.

Discussion and analysis of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. The course will consider emerging issues such as classification of cyber-attacks as "force" or as terrorism so as to bring this new form of aggression within the ambit of the existing legal architecture. It will also introduce the student in general terms to the means and methods of digital warfare, defensive and offensive countermeasures, as well as, the current and emerging policies of the US toward hostile cyber operations. If time permits, the course may also include comparative responses other selected countries such as Britain and France.

They will participate in externships based in Washington, D. Enrollment occurs through a specialized application process. It explores the purpose and function of a law clerk, the nature and structure of the judiciary, how to apply for and obtain a clerkship, and most importantly, how to perform it well.

Topics of discussion include judicial ethics, chambers confidentiality, docket management, courtroom decorum, professionalism, judicial drafting, and other issues that law clerks commonly encounter. Among other things, students draft an Day memo, bench memo, and judicial opinion. Supreme Court, FBI, etc. Topics include collection procedures and defenses, relief measures for debtors, and a brief treatment of federal bankruptcy law.

Topics include economic inequality, campaign financing, voting rights, and media and free speech. The course is not offered every academic year. Negotiation theory and tactics will also be explored. Students who have taken Mediation in the past or who are currently enrolled in or who plan to take Mediation may not register for Dispute Resolution. Topics of coverage include intra-racial use of racial slurs, implicit bias, sex discrimination, sexual harassment, appearance policies, discrimination in coeducation, sex stereotypes, stereotype threat, coping strategies, transgender issues, eugenics, genetic discrimination, accessibility issues, the impact of social media, and other hot topic issues.

Students will learn the doctrine and then utilize what they know in a series of short writing exercises and skill simulations. For example, students will learn about the Americans with Disabilities Act and then apply what they know to conduct a mock accessibility audit to determine whether a person with a disability would have full and equal enjoyment of the facility. At the conclusion of the course, students will draft a paper exploring the overarching question of what equality means.

Although we will at times discuss the legal authority and legal problems faced by private schools and institutions of higher education, the emphasis of the course is K public and charter schools and the unique challenges faced by these governmental entities. A broad range of education law topics will be covered at a very quick pace, including: They handle legal problems for elderly clients, conduct interviews, draft pleadings and wills, and appear in court and in administrative proceedings.

Students make community presentations on laws affecting older adults. A geriatrician, on the medical school faculty, teaches about the common medical issues of older clients, after which students are able to participate in a multidisciplinary clinic at the Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center.

Topics covered will typically include the right to participate in the political process, reapportionment, redistricting, racial and political gerrymandering, the role of political parties, money and politics, legal issues in election administration, and remedies for defective elections. Aside from employee benefits being an in-demand practice area in and of itself, students interested in employment law, tax law, family law, or estate planning will also come away with valuable knowledge on how ERISA intersects with all of these areas and will be better equipped to address employee benefits issues in their future practices.

It includes theories of liability, defenses, administrative procedures, and remedies. Offered for either 2 or 3 credit hours at the discretion of the Dean and the professor.

There will be some class meetings with assigned readings, but the major work will be a research paper. Offered every year at 1 and 2 hours. The 2 hour section will satisfy the Upper Level Writing Requirement. It includes wrongful discharge, contracts, wages and hours, occupational safety and health, workers' compensation, and privacy rights. It also includes an overview of the federal statutes prohibiting discrimination on account of race, color, sex, religion, national origin, age, and disability.

The readings come primarily from a textbook and various online materials. Grading based on class participation, midterms, in-class presentation, and research paper. Areas of focus include: Intellectual property law, and in particular copyright and trademark, plays a significant role in entertainment law. After covering basic principles of administrative law as they apply to environmental regulation, the course focuses on the major federal environmental statutes, including the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Clear Air Act, and the Clean Water Act.

This course may be offered for three hours during some years. Other topics include contempt and attorneys' fees.

The purpose of this class is to give students a working knowledge of essential concepts in business. The class focuses on teaching useful intellectual skills associated with a working knowledge of accounting, financial statement analysis, finance, valuation, capital structure, financial instruments, capital markets, corporate transactions, operations, and business strategy. The course concepts are interconnected and their mastery serves two purposes: Students with significant prior business experience or exposure may only enroll with permission of the professor.

Special reference to the Federal Rules of Evidence. The student will submit a statement of goals to the faculty supervisor and will meet with the supervisor on the goals before the externship begins. For a one-hour externship, the student will meet with the supervising faculty member for one hour each week of the semester for a total of 15 meeting hours ; for a two-hour externship, the student will meet with the supervising faculty member for two hours each week for a total of 30 meeting hours.

For a 1-hour externship during the school year, the student works at the placement for a minimum of 30 hours; for a 2-hour externship, 60 hours. For an externship during the summer, those hours are doubled for a total of 60 and hours, respectively.

The student will write a minimum of bi-weekly reflection papers as well as a final paper. Special attention will be paid to the family law issues arising most frequently in a family law practice — asset and liability division, alimony, child support, child custody, and modification of prior orders. Students study complaints, pretrial motions, suppression hearings, plea negotiations, and sentencing hearings. The course will have several distinct components: Topics covered include food safety regulation, food labeling and misbranding litigation, seed patenting and GMOS, food access and nutrition assistance, and food justice.

Practicum 1 hour See course description for for the doctrinal content. The Supreme Court has not read the Religion Clauses literally. The Court has, as Prof. Of course the meaning of a constitutional provision is not coterminous with what the Supreme Court says the provision means.

Lawyers are citizens and advocates, and frequently lawyers also are judges and public policymakers. Consequently, any meaningful discussion of the meaning of constitutional norms cannot rely only on what courts have said the Constitution means. Doctrines change, and lawyers are often the catalysts for those changes. This course is designed to examine a discrete interpretive issue: What should the Religion Clauses—i.

In that respect, our discussion will often operate outside of the realm of court decision. Focuses on children's exploration, play, and creative expression in the areas of art, music, and movement. Emphasis will be on developing strategies for using various open-ended media representing a range of approaches in creative thinking. Provides experiences in content, methods, and materials for the development of math, science, and social studies skills in children.

Emphasis will be on developing strategies for using various resources to facilitate children's construction of knowledge. Addresses strategies for intervention and support for children with special needs and English Language Learners.

Focuses on observation as the primary method for gathering information about children in early childhood settings. Emphasizes development of skills in the implementation of a range of observation techniques. Includes 40 hours of field placement in early learning setting. Examines child growth and development from birth to 36 months. Focuses on development in the physical, cognitive, social, emotional, and language domains. Emphasizes the importance of the environment and relationships for healthy brain development during the child's first three years of life.

Explores the role of the early childhood educator in supporting emotional and social development of children, and in fostering a sense of community. Presents practical strategies for encouraging prosocial behavior, conflict resolution and problem solving. Emphasizes basic skills and techniques in child guidance. Reviews the history of and legal requirements for providing intervention and educational services for children with special needs.

Studies the characteristics of children with a diverse array of needs and developmental abilities. Explores concepts of early intervention, inclusion, guiding behavior and adapting environments to meet children's needs. Studies and discusses the various models and theories of early childhood education programs, including current trends and issues.

Presents state licensing and staff requirements. Explores methods of developing positive, effective relations with families to enhance their developmental goals for children. Considers culture and other diverse needs, perspectives, and abilities of families and educators. Emphasizes advocacy and public policy awareness as an important role of early childhood educators. Describes risk factors and identifies community resources. Examines the purposes of school-age child care in today's society, the role of adults within school-age child care, and the state of the profession of school-age child care.

Explores the creative activities, techniques, interactions, and program development that promote positive social and emotional growth in school-age children. Emphasizes positive development through everyday programming and experiences. Discusses the development of social skills that school-age children need for self-management, including self-discipline, self-esteem, and coping with stress and anger. Explores ways to effectively guide and discipline school-age children, focusing on how adults can facilitate positive pro-social and self-management skills.

Examines the physical growth of school-age children and the role of health and recreation in school-age child development. Explores the use of medication, misuse of drugs, health issues of children, and the availability of community resources. Focuses on implementation of activity planning and observation of children through participation in early childhood settings.

Reviews legal and ethical implications of working with children. Supports the student in creating a professional educational portfolio. Examines the skills needed for establishing and managing early childhood programs. Emphasizes professionalism and interpersonal skills, program planning, staff selection and development, creating policies, budgeting, and developing forms for recordkeeping.

Requires the completion of a project or research report related to the student's occupational objectives and a study of approaches to the selection and pursuit of career opportunities in the field. Focuses on the development of a portfolio to demonstrate professional competence in the field of early care and education.

The resulting portfolio will be reviewed by early childhood faculty and other designated early childhood professionals. Introduces understanding, speaking, reading, and writing skills and emphasizes basic Chinese sentence structure. This is the second semester of the two-semester course for beginners, or a refresher course for non-native speakers with other equivalent experience.

In this course, students will continue their introduction to basic standard Mandarin Chinese, spoken by over a billion people in mainland China, Taiwan, Singapore, and other parts of the world. They will learn to comprehend, speak, read, and write on a variety of topics related to daily life. The course will also expand on the student's growing knowledge of essential aspects of Chinese culture.

Presents basic inorganic and organic principles to students with little or no chemistry background. The credits are not applicable to any of the college's academic programs, although high school-level chemistry or higher may be required for entrance into certain programs. Emphasizes experimental and theoretical aspects of inorganic, organic, and biological chemistry. Discusses general chemistry concepts as they apply to issues within our society and environment. Competency in Math Essentials MTE units as demonstrated through the placement and diagnostics tests or equivalent.

Explores the fundamental laws, theories, and mathematical concepts of chemistry. Designed primarily for science and engineering majors. Requires a strong background in mathematics. Introduces fundamental chemistry of carbon compounds, including structures, physical and chemical properties, syntheses, and typical reactions.

Provides a laboratory experience for students in organic synthesis and qualitative organic analysis. Introduces fundamental chemistry of carbon compounds, structures, and properties. Emphasizes reaction mechanisms and synthesis. Includes qualitative organic analysis. Explores fundamentals of biological chemistry. Includes study of macromolecules, metabolic pathways, and biochemical genetics. Introduces a science and engineering-oriented, high-level programming language.

Studies the C language and its application in problem-solving in a structured programming environment. Includes the concepts and practice of structured programming, problem-solving, top-down design of algorithms, basic C syntax, control structures, arrays, and data structures.

Introduces basic hardware and software concepts of computer usage, programming languages, and the computer's impact on society. Includes applications of various types of software to illustrate how computers are used in sciences, social sciences, humanities, and education. Covers the use of an operating system, word processing, spreadsheets, e-mail, library access, database access and retrieval, presentation graphics, and the Internet.

Provides a broad introduction to computer science. Discusses architecture and the function of computer hardware, including networks and operating systems, data and instruction representation, and data organization.

Covers software, algorithms, programming languages, and software engineering. Discusses artificial intelligence and theory of computation. Includes a hands-on component with oral and written presentations. Introduces algorithm and problem-solving methods.

Emphasizes structured programming concepts, elementary data structures, and the study and use of a high-level programming language. Examines data structures, introduction to object-oriented design, and algorithm analysis. Covers data structures including sets, strings, stacks, queues, arrays, records, files, linked lists, and trees , polymorphism, inheritance, exceptions, interfaces, abstract data types, algorithm analysis including searching and sorting methods , and file structures.

Examines the hierarchical structure of computer architecture. Focuses on multi-level machine organization. A simple assembler language is used by students to complete programming projects. Includes processors, instruction execution, addressing techniques, data representation, and digital logic. Covers Boolean algebra, combinatorial and sequential circuits, algorithms and algorithm analysis, recursion, recurrence relations, graphs, and trees. Includes language syntax, problem-solving techniques, top-down refinement, procedure definition, loop invariance, theory of numerical errors, program design, objects, classes, inheritance, files, strings, linked lists, stacks, queues, binary trees, recursion, and basic searching and sorting techniques, and debugging.

Explores the practical application of concepts and procedures, such as regulations and standards, safety, personal protective equipment PPE , universal precautions, and the work flow of the central service department.

Discusses disinfection, decontamination, transportation of soiled items, and cleaning processes. Explores the basics of instrumentation assembly and how to process instruments, including disassembly. Prepares the student to visually identify surgical instruments and distinguish category, use, and name of each instrument. Emphasizes quality assurance and provides the student with the skills to package and inspect instrumentation and equipment for sterilization. Prepares the student for entry level practice in assembly area of the central service department.

Covers the packaging process and sterilization method with an emphasis on disposable packaging materials, package closure methods, package labeling, sterility maintenance, selection of appropriate packing material, and identification of instruments by category, use, and name.

Emphasizes quality assurance to enable the student to inspect, assemble, and prepare instrumentation for packaging. Introduces the fundamentals of infection control. Content will include an introduction to concepts of microbiology including cell structure and theory, microbial function, human and pathogen relationships, infectious process, blood-borne and airborne pathogens, defense microorganisms, and principles of microbial control and destruction.

Provides students hands-on practice in the clinical setting of central sterile service with an emphasis on the decontamination and processing areas. Prepares the student for point-of-use processing, immediate-use steam sterilization, and high-heat and low-heat sterilization methods.

Emphasizes proper procedures involved in transporting sterile goods through facilities and between various clinical sites and quality assurance to ensure customer satisfaction and safety, records maintenance, sterile storage, and central service inventory. Provides the student with continued hands-on practice in the clinical setting with an emphasis on packaging, wrapping, and sterilization in the clinical setting within a central sterilization processing department.

Provides continued hands-on clinical experience in a central sterilization processing department. Examines the elements affecting speech communication at the individual, small group, and public communication levels with emphasis on practice of communication at each level. Provides students with a critical understanding of film through the discussion and viewing of motion pictures with emphasis upon the study of film history and the forms and functions of film.

Students will develop skills to analyze the shared social, cultural, and historical influences of films and their contexts. Students will develop the skills to analyze the shared social, cultural, and historical influences of films and their contexts.

The course focuses on the interplay of contemporary aspects of film creation such as diverse audiences, economic realities, and emerging media formats. Emphasizes the influence of culture on the communication process, including differences in values, message systems, and communication; focuses on the importance of culture in everyday living; acknowledges the growing need to communicate across cultures in an era of rapid globalization; and presents strategies for effective communication in a culturally-diverse workplace and community.

Studies food composition, dietary guidelines, and nutrients essential to healthy human life. Analyzes nutrient function and metabolism. Provides an introduction to the oral health professions and covers basic terminology, historical perspective, the credentialing process, accreditation, professional organizations, and legal and ethical considerations. Teaches anatomy of the head and neck, the hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity, tooth morphology, deciduous and permanent dentition, as well as dental pathology and terminology.

Studies head and neck anatomy, tooth morphology, pathological conditions of the oral cavity, disease processes, and microbiology. Studies principles of management of disease-producing microorganisms and associated diseases. Emphasizes sterilization, asepsis, and disinfection techniques applicable in the dental office. Studies the materials utilized in the laboratory aspect of dentistry as support in treatment. Emphasizes the characteristics, manipulation, economical control, storage, and delivery of materials.

Provides instruction on the principles of clinical chairside dental assisting, dental equipment use and maintenance, safety, instrument identification, tray set-ups by procedures, and patient data collection. Emphasizes patient management during restorative procedures. Introduces the student to the various dental specialties, including oral surgery, orthodontics, periodontics, prosthodontics, endodontics, and pediatric dentistry.

Emphasizes integration and application of previous course content to operative dental procedures. Exposes students to concepts and terminology related to pharmacology, pain control, and dental medicinal agents. Emphasizes the use of materials in patient treatment.

Studies topics related to community health issues, including identification of specific diseases, symptoms, causes, and effects.

Emphasizes the promotion of oral health in the community through patient education in oral home care techniques, dietary counseling, plaque control procedures, and application of medicinal agents. Exposes students to and provides practical experience in the legal aspects of dental office management with regard to ethics, jurisprudence, appointment control, recall systems, reception techniques, telephone techniques, accounts receivable and payable, payroll insurance claims, inventory control, and professional conduct in a dental office.

Teaches the physics of dental radiation and safety, equipment operation, cone placement for the parallel and bisection techniques, panoramic exposures, mounting, and film processing. Students must be at least 18 years old to enroll in course. Provides students clinical experience to supplement DNA through hands-on experience in the dental clinic at Reynolds.

Students will be assisting staff. Provides clinical experience within the private practice community by exposing students to the fast-paced dental office environment in which the student performs chairside and support services with an established team. Focuses on chairside assisting in general dentistry at two different clinical sites.

Students will complete the required number of clinical hours at the two assigned facilities. Introduces technical drafting from the fundamentals through advanced drafting practices.

Teaches lettering, metric construction, technical sketching, orthographic projection, sections, intersections, development, fasteners, theory, and applications of dimensioning and tolerances. Includes pictorial drawing and preparation of working and detailed drawings. Emphasizes reading, understanding, and interpreting standard types of architectural drawing, including plans, elevations, sections, and details.

Teaches computer-aided drafting concepts and equipment. Develops a general understanding of components and operating a typical CAD system. DRF is recommended for individuals with no experience in technical drawing prior to enrolling in DRF Focuses on training students in the contemporary techniques of 3D modeling, rendering, and animation on the personal computer. Introduces the principles of visualization, sometimes known as photo-realism, which enable the student to create presentation drawings for both architectural and industrial product design.

Uses computer animation to produce walk-throughs that will bring the third dimension to architectural designs. Provides basic knowledge of the construction, design, and application of selected modern diesel engines and their components.

Covers induction and exhaust systems, cooling and lubricating systems, and fuel injection and governing systems. Provides opportunity to disassemble, inspect, recondition, reassemble, and test selected engines. Teaches maintenance, adjustment, testing, and general repair of the typical fuel injection components used on non-automotive diesel engines. Includes engine and fuel system tune-up procedures and troubleshooting using current diagnostic equipment. Studies the theory and operation of various truck and tractor electrical systems.

Covers preheating, starting, generating charging , multiplexing, and lighting systems. Uses modern test equipment for measurement, adjustment, and troubleshooting electrical and electronic systems. Emphasizes the properties of fluid, fluid flow, fluid states, and the application of Bernoulli's equation. Studies the chassis, suspension, steering, and brake systems found on medium and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Covers construction features, operating principles, and service procedures for such power train components as clutches, multi-speed transmissions, propeller shafts, and rear axles.

Teaches operations of modern equipment to correct and adjust abnormalities. Studies the basic operational theory of pneumatic and air brake systems as used in heavy-duty and public transportation vehicles. Covers various air control valves, test system components, and advanced air system schematics. Teaches proper service and preventative maintenance of system. Studies fundamentals of transportation air conditioning. Includes repair, service, and troubleshooting of the refrigeration systems used in road vehicles and heavy equipment.

Provides supervised on-the-job training for pay in approved business, industrial, and service firms coordinated by the college. Presents a broad overview of economic theory, history, development, and application. Introduces terms, definitions, policies, and philosophies of market economies.

Provides some comparison with other economic systems. Includes some degree of exposure to microeconomic and macroeconomic concepts. Introduces macroeconomics, including the study of Keynesian, classical, monetarist principles and theories; the study of national economic growth, inflation, recession, unemployment, financial markets, and money and banking; and the role of government spending and taxation, along with international trade and investments. Introduces the basic concepts of microeconomics.

Explores the free market concepts with coverage of economic models and graphs, scarcity and choices, supply and demand, elasticities, marginal benefits and costs, profits, and production and distribution.

Introduces the "driver task" as related to the highway transportation system and factors that influence performance ability. Prepares students so they may be eligible to take certification exams for driving school instructors in both public and private schools.

Focuses on developing effective general rubrics as a component of quality instruction. Examines various types of rubrics and learning targets. Encourages faculty reflection on their current teaching by considering formative assessment, instructional design, critical thinking, and questioning methods. Fosters confidence and patience for experimenting with instructional design and reflecting on the scholarship of teaching. Develops effective classroom management strategies with an emphasis on creating a holistic classroom management plan.

Examines the role of student engagement on classroom behavior and achievement. Focuses on developing positive teacher-student relationships. Discusses teaching philosophies that facilitate effective classroom management. Provides an orientation to the teaching profession in Virginia, including historical perspectives, current issues, and future trends in education on the national and state levels. Emphasizes information about teacher licensure examinations, steps to certification, teacher preparation and induction programs, and attention to critical shortage areas in Virginia.

Includes supervised field placement in a K school. SDV and successful completion of 24 credits of transfer courses. Analyzes rules and regulations that govern the conduct of driver education programs with special emphasis on organization and administration.

Includes uses in the classroom, driving range, and on the street. Prepares students so they may be eligible to take the state certification exam in driver education. Provides instruction in concepts and strategies involved in teaching reading at the K levels. Includes topics on literacy, components of development, various reading programs, technology integration, and assessment tools.

May include field placement in a K school. Prepares students to construct graphic teaching aids; to select and develop materials for instructional support; and to operate, maintain, and use audiovisual equipment in the classroom. Focuses on the health and developmental needs of children and the methods by which these needs are met. Emphasizes positive health, hygiene, nutrition and feeding routines, childhood diseases, and safety issues. Emphasizes supporting the mental and physical well-being of children, as well as procedures for reporting child abuse.

Instructs educators in the method and practice for delivery of online course content. Includes instructional technology and instructional design theory and practice, with skills and strategies that educators will use to engage students and create a collaborative online environment. Proficient working knowledge of the current VCCS online course delivery system. Provides students an opportunity to identify, create, and implement multimedia in an e-learning course.

Introduces learners to the fundamentals of creating and organizing online courses according to the ASSURE Model of instructional design and the standards created by Quality Matters. IDOL covers analyzing learners; writing proper learning objectives; ADA compliance; selecting methods, media, and materials to be used within an online course; utilizing those methods, media, and materials; requiring learner participation; evaluating and revising your course; assessing and measuring performance; and a self-reflection.

Basic computer skills, ability to navigate the World Wide Web, experience using Blackboard in teaching for at least one semester, and permission of the instructor. Introduces learners to the fundamentals of using various Web 2. EDU , basic computer and web navigation skills, and experience using BlackboardTM for at least one semester for teaching.

Provides introduction to the fundamentals of implementing mobile technologies in the online teaching and learning environment. Focuses on increasing student engagement using mobile technologies and includes an overview of mobile learning, common applications, researching and applying mobile learning, developing content and materials to be used with mobile devices, assessing in the mobile learning environment, social media, productivity, and a self-reflection.

EDU or equivalent; basic computer skills, including World Wide Web navigation; and experience using Blackboard for a minimum of one semester. EDU , basic computer and web navigation skills, and experience using Blackboard for at least one semester for teaching. Covers an introduction to multimedia, the ASSURE model of instructional design, various media formats, screen design and user friendliness, storyboards and storyboard development, multimedia development, assessment creation, and incorporating multimedia into Blackboard.

EDU , basic computer skills, familiarity with navigating the World Wide Web, and experience using Blackboard in teaching for a minimum of one semester.

Examines the federal and state laws affecting the duties of teachers in ensuring the rights of students. Investigates the laws which protect teachers from litigation.

Discusses the impact of the United States Constitution and landmark cases so that participants may better understand how the law has influenced the American public school.

Employs the Code of Virginia as the foundation for state and local policy. Prepares instructors in the pedagogy and course administration of teaching online courses and provides an overview of various technologies available for online instruction.

Focuses on the strategies of collaborating and teaching online. This course is intended for PreK teachers and administrators.

Develops effective assessment practices of in-service teachers. Focuses on a balanced assessment approach emphasizing the use of formative and summative assessments. Utilizes quality rubrics as a vital component of effective classroom assessment. Addresses local, state, and federal requirements that impact classroom assessment.

Examines the concept that quality assessment is vital to student success. Emphasizes the application of course content to each teacher's individual classroom setting. Presents theories and principles of orthographic projection. Studies multiview, pictorial drawings and sketches, geometric construction, sectioning, lettering, tolerancing, dimensioning, and auxiliary projections.

Studies the analysis and graphic presentation of space relationships of fundamental geometric elements: Includes instruction in computer-aided drafting. Introduces the engineering profession, professionalism, and ethics. Design project also includes using presentation software, database searching, and prototyping. Introduces mechanics of vector forces and space, scalar mass and time, including S. Teaches equilibrium, free-body diagrams, moments, couples, distributed forces, centroids, moments of inertia, analysis of two-force and multi-force members, and friction and internal forces.

Presents economic analysis of engineering alternatives. Studies economic and cost concepts, calculation of economic equivalence, comparison of alternatives, replacement economy, economic optimization in design and operation, depreciation, and after-tax analysis. Presents approach to kinematics of particles in linear and curvilinear motion.

Includes kinematics of rigid bodies in plane motion. Teaches Newton's second law, work-energy and power, impulse and momentum, and problem solving using computers. Teaches concepts of stress, strain, deformation, internal equilibrium, and basic properties of engineering materials.

Analyzes axial loads, torsion, bending, shear, and combined loading. Studies stress transformation and principle stresses, column analysis, and energy principles. Studies formulation of the first and second law of thermodynamics. Presents energy conversion, concepts of energy, temperature, entropy, enthalpy, and equations of state of fluids.

Covers reversibility and irreversibility in processes, closed and open systems, cyclical processes, and problem solving using computers. Teaches fundamentals of electric circuits. Includes circuit quantities of charge, current, potential, power, and energy. Teaches resistive circuit analysis; Ohm's and Kirchoff's laws; nodal and mesh analysis; network theorems; and RC, RL, and RLC circuit transient response with constant forcing functions.

Teaches AC steady-state analysis, power, and three-phase circuits. Presents frequency domain analysis, resonance, Fourier series, inductively coupled circuits, Laplace transform applications, and circuit transfer functions.

Introduces problem solving using computers. Teaches principles and operation of laboratory instruments such as VOM, electronic voltmeters, digital multimeters, oscilloscopes, counters, wave generators, and power supplies.

Presents application to circuit measurements, including transient and steady-state response of simple networks with laboratory applications of laws and theories of circuits plus measurement of AC quantities. Focuses on all aspects of pre-hospital basic life support as defined by the Virginia Office of Emergency Medical Services curriculum for Emergency Medicine Technician.

Includes all aspects of pre-hospital basic life support as defined by the Virginia Office of Emergency Medical Services curriculum for Emergency Medical Technician. Includes the theory and application of the following: Focuses on the interpretation of basic electrocardiograms ECG and their significance.

Includes an overview of anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system, including structure, function, and electrical conduction in the heart. Covers advanced concepts that build on the knowledge and skills of basic dysrhythmia determination and introduction to 12 lead ECG. Includes ALS pharmacology, drug and fluid administration with emphasis on patient assessment, differential diagnosis, and management of multiple medical complaints.

Includes, but not limited to, conditions relating to cardiac, diabetic, neurological, non-traumatic abdominal pain, environmental, behavioral, gynecology, and toxicological disease conditions.

Utilizes techniques which will allow the student to utilize the assessment findings to formulate a field impression and implement the treatment plan for the trauma patient.

Focuses on the assessment and management of specialty patients, including obstetrical, neonates, pediatric, and geriatrics. Begins the first in a series of clinical experiences providing supervised direct patient contact in appropriate patient care facilities in and out of hospitals.

Includes, but not limited to, patient care units, such as the Emergency Department, Critical Care units, Pediatric, Labor and Delivery, Operating Room, Trauma Centers, and various advanced life support units.

Continues with the second in a series of clinical experiences providing supervised direct patient contact in appropriate patient care facilities in and out of hospitals. Continues with the second in a series of field experiences providing supervised direct patient care in out-of-hospital advanced life support units.

Prepares students for Paramedic certification at the National Registry Level by fulfilling community activism, personal wellness, resource management, ethical considerations in leadership, and research objectives in the Virginia Office of Emergency Medical Services Paramedic curriculum.

Focuses on the pathological processes of disease with emphasis on the anatomical and physiological alterations of the human body by systems. Includes diagnosis and management appropriate to the advanced health care provider in and out of the hospital environment. Focuses on the principles of normal and abnormal physical exam.

Emphasizes the analysis and interpretation of physiological data to assist in patient assessment and management. Applies principles during the assessment and management of trauma, medical, and specialty patients in laboratory environment. Focuses on the principles of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and drug administration.

Includes drug legislation, techniques of medication administration, and principles of math calculations. Emphasizes drugs used to manage respiratory, cardiac, neurological, gastrointestinal, fluid and electrolyte, and endocrine disorders and includes classification, mechanism of action, indications, contra-indications, precautions, and patient education. Incorporates principles related to substance abuse and hazardous materials.

Applies principles during the assessment and management of trauma, medical, and specialty patients in a laboratory environment. Prepares the student in the theory and application of the following: Continues with the third in a series of clinical experiences providing supervised direct patient contact in appropriate patient care facilities in and out of hospitals. Continues with the third in a series of field experiences providing supervised direct patient care in out-of-hospital advanced life support units.

Continues as the fourth in a series of clinical experiences providing supervised direct patient contact in appropriate patient care facilities in and out of hospitals. Continues as the fourth in a series of field experiences, providing supervised direct patient care in out-of-hospital advanced life support units.

Provides integrated reading and writing instruction for students who require extensive preparation to succeed in college-level English courses. Students will place into this course based on placement test score. Upon successful completion and faculty recommendation, students will move into Preparing for College English III if they require additional preparation or into college-level English if they require no additional preparation. Credit is not applicable toward graduation.

Provides integrated reading and writing instruction for students who require intermediate preparation to succeed in college-level English courses. Upon successful completion and faculty recommendation, students will move into Preparing for College Level III if they require additional preparation or into college-level English if they require no additional preparation.

Provides integrated reading and writing instruction for students who require minimal preparation for college-level English, but still need some preparation to succeed. Students in this course will be co-enrolled in college-level English.

Helps students to improve spelling and develop vocabulary. Reviews common spelling patterns. Familiarizes the student with basic prefixes, suffixes, root words, and other word formations. Teaches effective use of the dictionary and thesaurus. Stresses recognizing words in reading context and using them effectively in writing. Introduces students to critical thinking and the fundamentals of academic writing. Through the writing process, students refine topics; develop and support ideas; investigate, evaluate, and incorporate appropriate resources; edit for effective style and usage; and determine appropriate approaches for a variety of contexts, audiences, and purposes.

Writing activities will include exposition and argumentation with at least one researched essay. ENG has been designated as a "writing intensive" course according to standards developed by the English department.

Continues to develop college writing with increased emphasis on critical essays, argumentation, and research, developing these competencies through the examination of a range of texts about the human experience. Requires students to locate, evaluate, integrate, and document sources and effectively edit for style and usage.

Successful completion of ENG or its equivalent and the ability to use word processing software; a grade of C or better in ENG is recommended. Develops ability in technical writing through extensive practice in composing technical reports and other documents. In attempting to stop the leak, the MIC supervisor suffered severe chemical burns and two other workers were severely exposed to the gases. During and , there were leaks of MIC, chlorine, monomethylamine, phosgene, and carbon tetrachloride , sometimes in combination.

E, E, and E In the months leading up to the December leak, liquid MIC production was in progress and being used to fill these tanks. Each tank was pressurized with inert nitrogen gas. This pressurization allowed liquid MIC to be pumped out of each tank as needed, and also kept impurities out of the tanks. In late October , tank E lost the ability to effectively contain most of its nitrogen gas pressure.

It meant that the liquid MIC contained within could not be pumped out. At the time of this failure, tank E contained 42 tons of liquid MIC. Maintenance included the shutdown of the plant's flare tower so that a corroded pipe could be repaired. An attempt to re-establish pressure in tank E on 1 December failed, so the 42 tons of liquid MIC contained within still could not be pumped out of it. In early December , most of the plant's MIC related safety systems were malfunctioning and many valves and lines were in poor condition.

In addition, several vent gas scrubbers had been out of service as well as the steam boiler, intended to clean the pipes. Two different senior refinery employees assumed the reading was instrumentation malfunction.

One was found by The decision was made to address the problem after a The incident was discussed by MIC area employees during the break. In the five minutes after the tea break ended at One employee witnessed a concrete slab above tank E crack as the emergency relief valve burst open, and pressure in the tank continued to increase to 55 psi About 30 metric tons of MIC escaped from the tank into the atmosphere in 45 to 60 minutes. A UCIL employee triggered the plant's alarm system at The two siren systems had been decoupled from one another in , so that it was possible to leave the factory warning siren on while turning off the public one, and this is exactly what was done: Finally, they received an updated report that it was "MIC" rather than "methyl isocyanate" , which hospital staff had never heard of, had no antidote for, and received no immediate information about.

The MIC gas leak emanating from tank E petered out at approximately 2: Fifteen minutes later, the plant's public siren was sounded for an extended period of time, after first having been quickly silenced an hour and a half earlier. The initial effects of exposure were coughing, severe eye irritation and a feeling of suffocation, burning in the respiratory tract, blepharospasm , breathlessness, stomach pains and vomiting.

People awakened by these symptoms fled away from the plant. Those who ran inhaled more than those who had a vehicle to ride. Owing to their height, children and other people of shorter stature inhaled higher concentrations, as methyl isocyanate gas is approximately twice as dense as air and hence in an open environment has a tendency to fall toward the ground.

Primary causes of deaths were choking , reflexogenic circulatory collapse and pulmonary oedema. Findings during autopsies revealed changes not only in the lungs but also cerebral oedema , tubular necrosis of the kidneys, fatty degeneration of the liver and necrotising enteritis. Apart from MIC, based on laboratory simulation conditions, the gas cloud most likely also contained chloroform , dichloromethane , hydrogen chloride , methyl amine , dimethylamine , trimethylamine and carbon dioxide , that was either present in the tank or was produced in the storage tank when MIC, chloroform and water reacted.

The gas cloud, composed mainly of materials denser than air, stayed close to the ground and spread in the southeasterly direction affecting the nearby communities. In the immediate aftermath, the plant was closed to outsiders including UCC by the Indian government , which subsequently failed to make data public, contributing to the confusion.

Upon arrival Anderson was placed under house arrest and urged by the Indian government to leave the country within 24 hours. Union Carbide organized a team of international medical experts, as well as supplies and equipment, to work with the local Bhopal medical community, and the UCC technical team began assessing the cause of the gas leak. The health care system immediately became overloaded. In the severely affected areas, nearly 70 percent were under-qualified doctors.

Medical staff were unprepared for the thousands of casualties. Doctors and hospitals were not aware of proper treatment methods for MIC gas inhalation. There were mass funerals and cremations. Photographer Pablo Bartholemew , on commission with press agency Rapho , took an iconic color photograph of a burial on December 4, Bhopal gas disaster girl.

Another photographer present, Raghu Rai , took a black and white photo. The photographers did not ask for the identity of the father or child as she was buried, and no relative has since confirmed it. As such, the identity of the girl remains unknown. Both photos became symbolic of the suffering of victims of the Bhopal disaster, and Bartholomew's went on to win the World Press Photo of the Year.

Within a few days, trees in the vicinity became barren and bloated animal carcasses had to be disposed of. Supplies, including food, became scarce owing to suppliers' safety fears. Fishing was prohibited causing further supply shortages. Lacking any safe alternative, on 16 December, tanks and were emptied of the remaining MIC by reactivating the plant and continuing the manufacture of pesticide.

Despite safety precautions such as having water carrying helicopters continually overflying the plant, this led to a second mass evacuation from Bhopal.

Complaints of lack of information or misinformation were widespread. An Indian government spokesman said, "Carbide is more interested in getting information from us than in helping our relief work". Formal statements were issued that air, water, vegetation and foodstuffs were safe, but warned not to consume fish. The number of children exposed to the gases was at least , Legal proceedings involving UCC, the United States and Indian governments, local Bhopal authorities, and the disaster victims started immediately after the catastrophe.

The Indian Government passed the Bhopal Gas Leak Act in March , allowing the Government of India to act as the legal representative for victims of the disaster, [32] leading to the beginning of legal proceedings. Initial lawsuits were generated in the United States federal court system. Following an appeal of this decision, the U.

Court of Appeals affirmed the transfer, judging, in January , that UCIL was a "separate entity, owned, managed and operated exclusively by Indian citizens in India". Throughout , the Indian Supreme Court heard appeals against the settlement. The Court ordered the Indian government "to purchase, out of settlement fund, a group medical insurance policy to cover , persons who may later develop symptoms" and cover any shortfall in the settlement fund. The company agreed to this. In , the local Bhopal authorities charged Anderson, who had retired in , with manslaughter, a crime that carries a maximum penalty of 10 years in prison.

He was declared a fugitive from justice by the Chief Judicial Magistrate of Bhopal on 1 February for failing to appear at the court hearings in a culpable homicide case in which he was named the chief defendant. Orders were passed to the Government of India to press for an extradition from the United States. Supreme Court refused to hear an appeal of the decision of the lower federal courts in October , meaning that victims of the Bhopal disaster could not seek damages in a U.

In , the Indian Supreme Court ordered the Indian government to release any remaining settlement funds to victims. And in September , the Welfare Commission for Bhopal Gas Victims announced that all original compensation claims and revised petitions had been "cleared".

Union Carbide Corporation in This move blocked plaintiffs' motions for class certification and claims for property damages and remediation. In the view of UCC, "the ruling reaffirms UCC's long-held positions and finally puts to rest—both procedurally and substantively—the issues raised in the class action complaint first filed against Union Carbide in by Haseena Bi and several organisations representing the residents of Bhopal".

In June , seven former employees of UCIL, all Indian nationals and many in their 70s, were convicted of causing death by negligence: Gokhale, managing director; Kishore Kamdar, vice-president; J. Mukund, works manager; S. Chowdhury, production manager; K. Shetty, plant superintendent; and S. They were each sentenced to two years imprisonment and fined Rs. All were released on bail shortly after the verdict.

US Federal class action litigation, Sahu v. Union Carbide and Warren Anderson , had been filed in under the U. The lawsuit was dismissed in and subsequent appeal denied. Some data about the health effects are still not available. A total of 36 wards were marked by the authorities as being "gas affected," affecting a population of , Of these, , were below 15 years of age, and 3, were pregnant women. The official immediate death toll was 2,, and in , 3, deaths had been officially certified.

Ingrid Eckerman estimated 8, died within two weeks. Later, the affected area was expanded to include , citizens. A government affidavit in stated the leak caused , injuries including 38, temporary partial injuries and approximately 3, severely and permanently disabling injuries. A cohort of 80, exposed people was registered, along with a control group, a cohort of 15, people from areas not exposed to MIC.

Nearly every year since , they have answered the same questionnaire. It shows overmortality and overmorbidity in the exposed group. Bias and confounding factors cannot be excluded from the study. A number of clinical studies are performed. The quality varies, but the different reports support each other. Missing or insufficient fields for research are female reproduction, chromosomal aberrations, cancer, immune deficiency, neurological sequelae, post traumatic stress disorder PTSD and children born after the disaster.

Late cases that might never be highlighted are respiratory insufficiency, cardiac insufficiency cor pulmonale , cancer and tuberculosis. A report in Mother Jones quotes a "spokesperson for the Bhopal Medical Appeal, which runs free health clinics for survivors" as saying "An estimated , to , survivors still struggle with serious medical conditions including nerve damage, growth problems, gynecological disorders, respiratory issues, birth defects, and elevated rates of cancer and tuberculosis.

The Government of India had focused primarily on increasing the hospital-based services for gas victims thus hospitals had been built after the disaster. BMHRC was a bedded super speciality hospital where heart surgery and hemodialysis were done. There was a dearth of gynaecology, obstetrics and paediatrics.

Eight mini-units outreach health centres were started and free health care for gas victims were to be offered until When the factory was closed in , pipes, drums and tanks were sold. The MIC and the Sevin plants are still there, as are storages of different residues. Isolation material is falling down and spreading. In tubewells in the vicinity of the UCIL factory had to be abandoned and tests in performed by UCC's laboratory revealed that soil and water samples collected from near the factory and inside the plant were toxic to fish.

Reported polluting compounds include 1-naphthol , naphthalene , Sevin , tarry residue , mercury , toxic organochlorines , volatile organochlorine compounds, chromium , copper, nickel, lead, hexachloroethane , hexachlorobutadiene , and the pesticide HCH.

In order to provide safe drinking water to the population around the UCIL factory, Government of Madhya Pradesh presented a scheme for improvement of water supply. In , a conference was held on the site, with participants from European universities which was aimed for the same. All except one was closed down by It was estimated that 50, persons need alternative jobs, and that less than gas victims had found regular employment under the government's scheme. The government also planned 2, flats in two- and four-story buildings in what is called the "widow's colony" outside Bhopal.

The water did not reach the upper floors and it was not possible to keep cattle which were their primary occupation. Infrastructure like buses, schools, etc. Immediate relieves were decided two days after the tragedy. Relief measures commenced in when food was distributed for a short period along with ration cards. As a result of the interim relief, more children were able to attend school, more money was spent on treatment and food, and housing also eventually improved.

Each claimant were to be categorised by a doctor. In court, the claimants were expected to prove "beyond reasonable doubt" that death or injury in each case was attributable to exposure.