During the testimony, a recording was played of a conversation between Murray and Jackson from May 10, James Van Der Beek pens heartbreaking, inspiring note about wife's 3 miscarriages "It will tear you open like nothing else," he wrote. Essentials of Strategic Management: Miller-Nobles Author , Brenda L. It was also heard that: Murray was going on tour with Jackson?
Paul English as Author of introduction, etc. English as Author Whitney, A. A treatise on its origin, pathology, treatment, and cure English as Author Whitney, A. English as Author We Girls: Volume 1 English as Author The Sea: Volume 2 English as Author The Sea: Volume 3 English as Author The Sea: An Autobiography English as Author Katerfelto: English as Author Sarchedon: Selections from the Sermons and Writings of Joseph F.
Teil 1 German as Author Geschichte des Agathon. English as Author The Devil: English as Author Wild-Bird See: Frink, Almira Louisa Corey, Mrs. What can it teach us? English as Author of introduction, etc. French as Author Wilhelm I. The Story of Her Life. Historiallinen kuvaelma Finnish as Author Aikakausien vaihteessa: Historiallisia kertomuksia Finnish as Author Aikojen yöstä: Romaani Finnish as Translator Miekka ja sana I: Romaani nykyajalta Finnish as Author Viimeiset luostarinasukkaat: Romaani Finnish as Author Willard, Dr.
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English as Author Williams, Peter E. A Prophecy of the Future. Improvisations English as Author Sour Grapes: English as Author Williams, W. Eric, Allan, Willis, Edwin R. Morrow, Honoré, Willson, Arabella M. Lives of the Three Mrs.
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Letters to Atticus, Vol. Duncan, Sara Jeannette, Winter, H. Wette, Adelheid, Witwer, H. Porvarillinen näytelmä neljässä näytöksessä Finnish as Translator W. Ethel Lillian , Wolbers, J. Friedrich August , Wolf, C.
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English as Author Wood, Mrs. Anderson, Ada Woodruff, Woodruff, S. Belgium the Brave, Vol. Being the Personal Reminiscences of Edwin G. How to get it and keep it.
The hygiene of dress, food, exercise, rest, bathing, breathing, and ventilation. English as Author Wood, T. Frank Lee , ? Patrick Henry , Woodward, P. One of the films, about 30 minutes long, was called Troublemakers. It was about our community project in Newark, and featured Tom, among others. We got to see him at work, bringing people together, asking lots of questions, drawing people out to feel comfortable with their own ideas, and their own potential for political power.
Tom was always laid back, non-domineering, but still serving as a catalyst, working toward united action. It was a good model for those of us who aspired to be organizers. My next knowledge of Tom was through the newspapers. Most of us SDSers had years before decided that justice was on the side of the Vietnamese, so we were quite pleased with the trip, even as the news pundits were scandalized.
We felt Tom had hit one out of the park with this move. In fact, it changed his life, since on his return he shifted away from local organizing among the poor to the larger and more intense struggles that were developing around the escalating Vietnam war. By I finally got together with Tom directly. We met in, of all places, the famous round bar at the top of the Havana Libre Hotel, formerly the Hilton, made famous in pre-revolution days with the likes of George Raft, Humphrey Bogart, and others of their pack hanging out there.
Then one night that week Tom and I got a summons. Together with antiwar leader Dave Dellinger, we were to be whisked off to a private meeting with Fidel Castro. We entered a car with several soldiers and were treated to a topsy-turvy high-speed ride around the city, finally ending up at an ordinary suburban house, but with soldiers with machine guns in the shadows.
They said little, but helped Fidel with translation, even though Fidel understood English rather well. We discussed everything under the sun for a few hours, with Tom and Dave giving Fidel a full account of the antiwar struggle. We asked about the fate of Che Guevara and Regis DeBray, and Fidel wanted more of our opinions of various political figures in Congress.
Finally he entered electoral politics, eventually becoming a state senator in California. As the war in Iraq unfolded and our movement was growing around the state, we decided on a statewide meeting in Champaign-Urbana. I offered to arrange for Tom to be the keynote speaker — he had just written a book on Iraq — and he agreed, and did an excellent job. In that speech, Tom made a deep lesson click in my mind.
Wars end in three ways: Pick all three, any two, or any one of them. But get to work. Members of the Campus Greens were at that conference, and I had given them some space in my office for their national work on the Nader campaign. A few months later, they invited both Tom and me to speak at their national convention at the university in Lawrence, Kansas. My talk was in a small group workshop, but with about 50 people, with Tom listening in.
Tom spoke to a full auditorium the next day. I sat in in the back, taking in all in. He was in great form. Both prose and poetry rolled off his tongue for over an hour, covering everything, and his audience was both spellbound and inspired.
The recording featured Jackson's talking about healing the world and helping children because he did not have a childhood, in slurred, almost incomprehensible speech. The recording ended with Murray's asking: She took four vials of Jackson's blood for toxicology testing and went to Jackson's house to perform an onsite investigation. While in Jackson's bedroom, she found an empty 20 ml propofol bottle and an empty 5 ml flumazenil bottle on the floor next to the bedside table. She also recovered other prescription drugs, such as diazepam , lorazepam, and tamsulosin Flomax , one bottle prescribed to Mick Jackson, and some medicines prescribed by Alan Metzger.
Other drugs found were Benoquin, hydroquinone , lidocaine , and an oxygen tank beside the bed. Medical equipment recovered included alcohol prep pads, a 10cc syringe with the needle removed, an IV catheter on the floor under an Ambu bag , an aspirin bottle, a syringe box, catheters, a jug of urine, and an IV pole with a saline bag and tubing draped over it.
Three bags were recovered: Also the saline bag with a cut in it containing the "more or less empty" ml propofol bottle that Alvarez recalls removing from the IV stand; and a light blue "baby essentials" bag, containing an array of bottles that included ml propofol and 20 ml propofol bottles filled to various levels, some opened, some closed , lorazepam, flumazenil, lidocaine, and Benoquin.
Murray's business cards from his Houston practice were also found. Fleak confirmed the presence of an IV stand, a saline infusion set, and a depressed syringe in a y-port connected to the tubing beside Jackson's bed.
The court heard that she issued a subpoena to Murray for Jackson's medical records, and only the records pre were submitted to her. During cross-examination, Chernoff asked Fleak about a number of "mistakes" during her examination, such as picking up a bottle from the floor before photographing it, ignoring the presence of the IV stand, not taking a picture of the propofol bottle inside the cut saline bag she said she took it out to see what it was then photographed it , and destroying her handwritten notes from June 25, It was heard that Fleak did not mention the propofol bottle was inside the saline bag in writing until March The defense suggested that she changed her story to fall into line with other witness' stories regarding the bottle in the bag.
Next called to testify was Dan Anderson, chief toxicologist at the coroner's office. He has 21 years' experience in this field. Blood taken from a femoral vein showed propofol 2. Blood taken from Jackson's heart showed propofol 3. Other results included liver lidocaine 0. Propofol was found in all eight specimen samples. Also tested were the 10cc syringe and plunger, the syringe barrel, the fluid in the syringe and the IV tubing propofol and lidocaine found.
No alcohol, barbiturates, cocaine, sedative hypnotics, marijuana, methamphetamine, opiates, codeine, morphine, hydrocodone, or Demerol were found in the samples. During cross-examination it was heard that post-mortem redistribution occurs in the blood stream, and hence different concentrations of drugs were found in different parts of the body from which they initially entered.
It was also heard that: The only place it was found was in the lower portion of the tubing and the syringe; the drug proportions couldn't be ascertained.
Dan Anderson continued to answer questions about the levels of drugs in Jackson's system and the substances found in the IV bag no drugs , tubing, and syringes in which propofol and lidocaine found found in Jackson's bedroom. It was heard that the level of lorazepam in Jackson's system 0.
It was shown that the total amount of lorazepam in Jackson's stomach was 0. It was noted that if there were a lot of a certain substance in the blood but not much in the urine then it was recently taken; the same can be said for substances in the stomach. Fleak was recalled to clarify some issues with photographs and the placement of items in the photographs that she testified to on October 6. Before Smith left, he had brief interviews with Mohammed and Alvarez. Smith then went to the Carolwood residence to assist and support the coroner's investigators.
It was heard that everyone left the house at 9: On June 26, Smith attended the autopsy, which was deferred pending toxicology, and then went back to the house to further investigate because the Jackson family had handed some items to the police some rotten cannabis in a shaving kit, some lotion, paper, an envelope, and other "debris". Inside the shaving kit was a bottle of temazepam prescribed by Murray to Omar Arnold dated September 26, While at the house, Smith found some empty pill bottles in the master bathroom.
While Smith was on the stand, a two-hour police interview with Murray, taken 48 hours after Jackson's death, was played to the court.
It was held in the Ritz Carlton hotel, and Orlando Martinez asked the questions; Chernoff was present. It was heard that Murray first met Jackson in , a security guard a patient's son asked Murray to meet him, and Murray first treated Jackson's children for the flu. Murray understood that he would be an employee of Jackson's, but then discovered his salary would be paid by AEG Live.
Murray said Jackson was not a person who ate well, and he was probably seeing doctors for issues he did not disclose to Murray. It was heard that Murray spent six nights a week at Jackson's house, only having Sundays off, and it was usually just Murray, Jackson, and Jacksons' children in the house.
The proceedings began with the conclusion of the recording of Murray's interview with the police from 48 hours after Jackson's death. Afterwards, Smith continued his testimony. Smith never mentioned in any notes referencing a propofol bottle being inside a saline bag during searches of Jackson's home in June He saw the propofol bottle beside a cut saline bag after Fleak had removed them from the Costco bag and it was the only saline bag found.
Search warrants were executed of Murray's house in Las Vegas, offices in Las Vegas and Houston, his girlfriend's apartment, his warehouse and his car, and no propofol was found. During brief statements taken from Mohammed and Amir at the hospital on June 25, , neither of them mentioned Murray asking to be brought back to the residence.
Alvarez did not mention propofol in an IV bag or Murray asking him to put things in bags until after the cause of death was released on August 27, Christopher Rogers, Chief of forensic pathology at the coroner's office, testified he had conducted the autopsy of Jackson on June 26, There was nothing obvious indicating the cause of death, and he was healthier than the average person of his age because there was no atherosclerosis on the walls of his coronary arteries.
Jackson did not have heart disease, and there were no irregularities in his heart. There was no evidence of natural disease or trauma, his esophagus was intact with no milky fluid there or in the stomach.
The stomach contained no pills or capsules. His mouth, upper airway and trachea were all intact with no foreign material present. Rogers took samples from each organ and sent them to the relevant experts for consults because he was not able to determine the cause of death and wanted a toxicological analysis.
Rogers also requested Jackson's medical records from Murray but never received them. After toxicological analysis, Rogers determined the cause of death to be acute propofol intoxication with contributing effects from benzodiazepines exacerbating respiratory and cardiovascular depression.
When asked about the manner of death, he testified it was a homicide. Propofol was not necessary, it was outside of a hospital or clinic, and the proper equipment to be used with propofol was not there. Murray administered too much propofol. The "circumstances do not support self-administration" because Jackson would have had to have woken up, self-administer the drugs, circulate to the brain, and then be found not breathing — all in the space of 2 minutes.
Rogers said that was a "less likely scenario". The "more likely scenario" was that "Murray was estimating the doses" to give Jackson and that "Murray accidentally gave too much. During cross-examination, Rogers testified that the only evidence of propofol in the medical equipment was in the syringe, in the Y-connector and the tubing thereafter. None was found in the upper tubing or the IV saline bag.
Jackson's stomach level of lorazepam was 0. It was hypothesized that Jackson must have ingested lorazepam fairly close to the time of death for it not to have been absorbed and distributed yet. On redirect, Walgren asked if Jackson had self-administered the propofol or lorazepam, it would still be a homicide because of the negligence by Murray, and Rogers said, "Correct.
Alon Steinberg, a cardiologist for 13 years and board-certified in cardiovascular diseases, Cardiac CT and Nuclear Cardiology, testified that he was not an expert in anaesthesia or pharmacology and that Murray was not board-certified in June Of the three degrees of breaching the standard of care no deviation, mild deviation, extreme deviation , this case was the first time Steinberg has seen extreme deviations from the standard of care.
Steinberg testified that propofol is only used in cases of needing deep sedation when the patient will go through a significantly painful procedure and there are risks that the patient could stop breathing; that is why it is used with constant monitoring and emergency equipment on hand. He testified that he only uses propofol with performing cardioversions and that he is required to have an anaesthetist present.
For instances of mild and moderate sedation, Steinberg stated that he would use benzodiazepines and would never prescribe propofol for insomnia. He received Murray's case and was asked to review his acts and omissions against the standard of care. The review was based on Murray's own words from his police interview previously heard by the court. Murray's deviations in the standard of care contributed to Jackson's untimely death? There would have been no opportunity for self-administration in a proper setting.
During cross-examination, Steinberg testified that if the patient had a blood pressure caused by there being a pulse and a pulse of , he was savable. If a patient is not breathing but has a pulse, the course of action is to clear the airways and give breaths.
Next to the stand was Dr. Nader Kamanger, board-certified in internal medicine, pulmonary medicine, critical care, and sleep medicine. He uses propofol daily for sedation when placing an endotracheal tube. It is the classic induction agent for deep sedation during painful procedures. It is the most common drug for maintaining sedation on patients on mechanical breathing apparatus. Doctors have to call an anaesthesiologist to administer it, someone who can maintain the airway, and someone who can reverse the effects of the drugs.
Kamanger also pointed out Murray's extreme deviation of the standard of care, consistent with Steinberg's testimony. Next to the stand was Steven Shafer , a professor of anesthesiology at Columbia University since and adjunct professor of anesthesiology at Stanford University since He is an expert on pharmacokinetics rate of onset of drug action, duration of action, and elimination of drug action, in sum and pharmacometrics with 20 years of experience working with the Food and Drug Administration FDA.
His field of interest involves mathematically modeling and how a dose of drug translates to concentrations in the body and its effects on a patient. He has published 19 papers about the pharmacokinetics of propofol.
Pharmacokinetics involves the study of the dilution of drug in a patient's blood stream. Shafer is the current editor in chief for the Journal of Anesthesia and Analgesia and on the editing board of many other journals. Shafer showed a video of the use of propofol during a procedure. He testified about his review of the Murray case.
He found seventeen "separate and distinct egregious violations" of the standard of care, of which four were unconscionable, based on Murray's police interview:. Shafer showed simulations of propofol and lorazepam on his computer models.
He stated that the drugs administered as described in Murray's interview statement could not have produced the femoral blood levels at autopsy. He also testified that Jackson repeatedly self-administrating the drugs would not have caused the femoral blood levels found at autopsy. Administration by continued IV infusion would cause the femoral blood levels found at autopsy very quickly after the drip was started.
After the patient stops breathing, the heart would still be beating so the IV would continue. This scenario would result in the blood levels at autopsy. Shafer demonstrated the set-up of an IV infusion of propofol.
The IV line for propofol would need an air vent to allow air into the bottle and an infusion pump to control the dose.
Without a pump, it is very hard to control the dose. He testified that he had never seen anything like the cut bag set-up and had never seen anyone do it. Chernoff cross-examined Shafer on his CV and about his relationship with the defense's expert Dr. She is the manager of the system of the BHPD. It was heard that the call on June 25 at He has been in this role for eleven years. It was heard that Mr. Supall went to the Jackson residence on the day to check the surveillance tapes.
He said he didn't locate where the cameras were or how many of them there were. The defense then played two surveillance videos involving Jackson and Murray's arrivals at the residence.
He joined the investigation of the Jackson death on the Monday after June 25, In his initial statement he didn't mention putting away vials or a vial or bottle in an IV bag. He stated that Alvarez didn't mention putting away vials for Dr.
Murray or seeing a vial or bottle inside an IV bag. Walgren had a meeting with Alvarez and Myres in his office in April Martinez brought from the case's evidence a saline bag, a propofol bottle and a pulse oximeter to the meeting.
Alvarez didn't recognize the propofol bottle shown to him. Alvarez was asked to draw the saline bag he saw after he described something at the bottom of the bag, it looked to be a port or some kind of apparatus. The next witness was Dr. A physician, general internalist and rheumatologist since , based in Los Angeles since First met Jackson 15—20 years ago. He began treating Michael Jackson in the s for various things. He became close to Jackson through the birth of his children and became a friend.
He was Jackson's primary physician in Los Angeles. He received a call from Jackson on June 12, ; the conversation was about sleep issues, skin issues, and nutrition. Hadn't spoken to Jackson for five years previously. It was heard that Dr. Metzger was in touch infrequently with the children's nanny over — keeping tabs on the children.
Jackson called for Dr. Metzger to come over in April to review his health issues. It was infrequent, not unusual to visit house.
Three children, Jackson and some security guards were present on visit. The conversation was about medical issues and rehearsal schedule. Jackson wanted to do 50 shows but was worried about nutrition. Also talked about hydration before and after performing. It was heard Jackson has had sleep issues for 15—20 years, particularly after performing, he had a problem coming down. Metzger had infrequently treated him for this over the years on tours.
In April he asked Dr. Metzger about IV sleep medication he mentioned 'juice' but he wasn't sure what he was asking for. Jackson did not believe any oral medicine would be helpful; they did not work. He had tried Tylenol PM , Xanax , clonazepam , trazodone , etc.
It was heard Dr. Metzger told Jackson that IV sleep medication was dangerous and should not be done outside of a hospital. It was heard that Jackson saw other doctors: Rosen for pain management and Dr. Klein for his vitiligo. Metzger stated he never provided any intravenous medicine to Jackson.
It was heard Metzger did not speak to Jackson between the April meeting and his death. The prosecution asked Metzger "Would any amount of money persuade you to give propofol? Next to the stand was Nurse Practitioner Cherilyn Lee.
Lee helps entertainers and athletes with nutritional issues. Lee is a board-certified nurse practitioner and legally allowed to prescribe meds, but chooses not to. Faheem Muhammad called Lee to treat Jackson's children who had a cold.