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Chinese culture
Progressive muscle relaxation can help ease headache pain. Sleeping regularly is important to ward off recurring headaches. These advocates are mostly students, who created a non-academic, non-official standard of Hanfu that refers to the historical dress of the Han Chinese before the Qing dynasty and published it on Baidu Baike. Return to looking straight ahead of you. Try yawning to reduce facial tension. The named reference ciastat was invoked but never defined see the help page.


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Airborne paper lanterns are called sky lanterns , and are often released into the night sky for aesthetic effect at lantern festivals. In Asia and elsewhere around the world, sky lanterns have been traditionally made for centuries, to be launched for play or as part of long-established festivities. The name "sky lantern" is a translation of the Chinese name but they have also been referred to as sky candles or fire balloons.

The general design is a thin paper shell, which may be from about 30 cm to a couple of metres across, with an opening at the bottom. When lit, the flame heats the air inside the lantern, thus lowering its density and causing the lantern to rise into the air.

The sky lantern is only airborne for as long as the flame stays alight, after which the lantern sinks back to the ground. While lacquer has been used in China for at least 3, years, [63] the technique of carving into very thick coatings of it appears to have been developed in the 12th century CE.

It is extremely time-consuming to produce, and has always been a luxury product, essentially restricted to China, [64] though imitated in Japanese lacquer in somewhat different styles. Though most surviving examples are from the Ming and Qing dynasties, the main types of subject matter for the carvings were all begun under the Song dynasty , and the development of both these and the technique of carving were essentially over by the early Ming.

These types were the abstract guri or Sword-Pommel pattern, figures in a landscape, and birds and plants. To these some designs with religious symbols, animals, auspicious characters right and imperial dragons can be added. Some screens and pieces of Chinese furniture were made. Carved lacquer is only rarely combined with painting in lacquer and other lacquer techniques.

These are red and black lacquer on camel hide, but the lacquer is very thin, "less than one millimeter in thickness", and the effect very different, with simple abstract shapes on a plain field and almost no impression of relief. This style continued to be used up to the Ming dynasty , especially on small boxes and jars with covers, though after the Song only red was often used, and the motifs were often carved with wider flat spaces at the bottom level to be exposed.

It consists of several frames or panels, which are often connected by hinges or by other means. It can be made in a variety of designs and with different kinds of materials. Folding screens have many practical and decorative uses.

It originated from ancient China , eventually spreading to the rest of East Asia, Europe, and other regions of the world. One of it was known as the huaping simplified Chinese: It is the primary hardstone of Chinese sculpture. Although deep and bright green jadeite is better known in Europe, for most of China's history, jade has come in a variety of colors and white "mutton-fat" nephrite was the most highly praised and prized.

Native sources in Henan and along the Yangtze were exploited since prehistoric times and have largely been exhausted; most Chinese jade today is extracted from the northwestern province of Xinjiang. Jade was prized for its hardness , durability , musical qualities , and beauty.

By the Han dynasty , the royal family and prominent lords were buried entirely ensheathed in jade burial suits sewn in gold thread, on the idea that it would preserve the body and the souls attached to it. Jade was also thought to combat fatigue in the living. Nonetheless, jade remained part of traditional Chinese medicine and an important artistic medium.

Although its use never became widespread in Japan , jade became important to the art of Korea and Southeast Asia. Music and dance were closely associated in the very early periods of China. The music of China dates back to the dawn of Chinese civilization with documents and artifacts providing evidence of a well-developed musical culture as early as the Zhou Dynasty BCE — BCE.

The earliest music of the Zhou Dynasty recorded in ancient Chinese texts includes the ritual music called yayue and each piece may be associated with a dance. Some of the oldest written music dates back to Confucius 's time.

The first major well-documented flowering of Chinese music was exemplified through the popularization of the qin plucked instrument with seven strings during the Tang Dynasty , although the instrument is known to have played a major role before the Han Dynasty.

There are many musical instruments that are integral to Chinese culture, such as the Xun Ocarina -type instrument that is also integral in Native American cultures , Guzheng zither with movable bridges , guqin bridgeless zither , sheng and xiao vertical flute , the erhu alto fiddle or bowed lute , pipa pear-shaped plucked lute , and many others. Dance in China is a highly varied art form, consisting of many modern and traditional dance genres. The dances cover a wide range, from folk dances to performances in opera and ballet, and may be used in public celebrations, rituals and ceremonies.

There are also 56 officially recognized ethnic groups in China , and each ethnic minority group in China also has its own folk dances.

The best known Chinese dances today are the Dragon dance and the Lion Dance. Chinese architecture is a style of architecture that has taken shape in East Asia over many centuries. The structural principles of Chinese architecture have remained largely unchanged, the main changes being only the decorative details.

Since the Tang dynasty, Chinese architecture has had a major influence on the architectural styles of Korea , Vietnam , and Japan. Chinese architecture, examples for which can be found from more than 2, years ago, is almost as old as Chinese civilization and has long been an important hallmark of Chinese culture.

There are certain features common to Chinese architecture, regardless of specific regions, different provinces or use. The most important is its emphasis on width, such as the wide halls of the Forbidden City serve as an example. In contrast, Western architecture tends to emphasize height though exceptions such as pagodas in Eastern architecture also focus on height.

Another important feature is symmetry , which connotes a sense of grandeur as it applies to everything from palaces to farmhouses. One notable exception is in the design of gardens, which tends to be as asymmetrical as possible.

Like Chinese scroll paintings, the principle underlying the garden's composition is to create enduring flow, to let the patron wander and enjoy the garden without prescription, as in nature herself.

Feng shui has played a very important part in structural development. Chinese architecture also have a huge influence on the architecture of East Asia, and to a lesser extent, Southeast Asia as well. The Chinese garden is a landscape garden style which has evolved over three thousand years. It includes both the vast gardens of the Chinese emperors and members of the imperial family, built for pleasure and to impress, and the more intimate gardens created by scholars, poets, former government officials, soldiers and merchants, made for reflection and escape from the outside world.

They create an idealized miniature landscape, which is meant to express the harmony that should exist between man and nature. By moving from structure to structure, visitors can view a series of carefully composed scenes, unrolling like a scroll of landscape paintings.

The Chinese palace is an imperial complex where the royal court and the civil government resided. Its structures are considerable and elaborate. Originally the character applied to any residence or mansion, but it was used in reference to solely the imperial residence since the Qin Dynasty 3rd century BC.

A Chinese palace is composed of many buildings. It has large areas surrounded by walls and moats. Apart from the main imperial palace, Chinese dynasties also had several other imperial palaces in the capital city where the empress, crown prince, or other members of the imperial family dwelled.

Paifang , also known as a Pailou , is a traditional style of Chinese architectural arch or gateway structure that is related to the Indian Torana from which it is derived.

Each fang was enclosed by walls or fences, and the gates of these enclosures were shut and guarded every night. Each pai, in turn, contained an area including several hutongs alleyways. This system of urban administrative division and subdivision reached an elaborate level during the Tang dynasty , and continued in the following dynasties. For example, during the Ming dynasty , Beijing was divided into a total of 36 fangs.

Originally, the word paifang referred to the gate of a fang and the marker for an entrance of a building complex or a town; but by the Song dynasty , a paifang had evolved into a purely decorative monument.

The Chinese garden is a landscape garden cantonese style which has evolved over the years. These gardens were large enclosed parks where the kings and nobles hunted game, or where fruit and vegetables were grown. Early inscriptions from this period, carved on tortoise shells, have three Chinese characters for garden, you , pu and yuan. You was a royal garden where birds and animals were kept, while pu was a garden for plants. During the Qin Dynasty — BC , yuan became the character for all gardens.

A large pool, big enough for several small boats, was constructed on the palace grounds, with inner linings of polished oval shaped stones from the sea shores. The pool was then filled with wine.

A small island was constructed in the middle of the pool, where trees were planted, which had skewers of roasted meat hanging from their branches. King Zhou and his friends and concubines drifted in their boats, drinking the wine with their hands and eating the roasted meat from the trees. Later Chinese philosophers and historians cited this garden as an example of decadence and bad taste.

In BC, an even more elaborate garden, the Terrace of Gusu , was begun. It was located on the side of a mountain, and included a series of terraces connected by galleries, along with a lake where boats in the form of blue dragons navigated.

From the highest terrace, a view extended as far as Lake Tai , the Great Lake. China is one of the main birth places of Eastern martial arts. Chinese martial arts, often named under the umbrella terms kung fu and wushu , are the several hundred fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China.

Chinese martial arts are collectively given the name Kung Fu gong "achievement" or "merit", and fu "man", thus "human achievement" or previously and in some modern contexts Wushu "martial arts" or "military arts". China also includes the home to the well-respected Shaolin Monastery and Wudang Mountains. The first generation of art started more for the purpose of survival and warfare than art.

Over time, some art forms have branched off, while others have retained a distinct Chinese flavor. Regardless, China has produced some of the most renowned martial artists including Wong Fei Hung and many others. The arts have also co-existed with a variety of weapons including the more standard 18 arms.

Legendary and controversial moves like Dim Mak are also praised and talked about within the culture. Martial arts schools also teach the art of lion dance , which has evolved from a pugilistic display of Kung Fu to an entertaining dance performance.

A number of games and pastimes are popular within Chinese culture. The most common game is Mah Jong. The same pieces are used for other styled games such as Shanghai Solitaire. Others include pai gow , pai gow poker and other bone domino games.

Weiqi and xiangqi are also popular. Ethnic games like Chinese yo-yo are also part of the culture where it is performed during social events. Qigong pronounced Chi Kung is the practice of spiritual, physical, and medical techniques. It is as a form of exercise and although it is commonly used among the elderly, any one of any age can practice it during their free time.

With its combination of physical flexibility and movement, breathing technique, and constant state of focus and mediation, it has also been a way to cleanse and heal the body and helps get in touch with your inner-self. Qigong has continuous rhythmic movements that help reduce stress and build stamina as well as to improve certain functions of the body such as cardiovascular and digestive.

Chinese cuisine is a very important part of Chinese culture , which includes cuisine originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world. Because of the Chinese diaspora and historical power of the country, Chinese cuisine has influenced many other cuisines in Asia , with modifications made to cater to local palates.

The preference for seasoning and cooking techniques of Chinese provinces depend on differences in historical background and ethnic groups. Geographic features including mountains, rivers, forests and deserts also have a strong effect on the local available ingredients, considering climate of China varies from tropical in the south to subarctic in the northeast.

Imperial, royal and noble preference also plays a role in the change of Chinese cuisines. Because of imperial expansion and trading, ingredients and cooking techniques from other cultures are integrated into Chinese cuisines over time. Cooking should be appraised from ingredients used, cuttings, cooking time and seasoning. It is considered inappropriate to use knives on the dining table. Chopsticks are the main eating utensils for Chinese food, which can be used to cut and pick up food.

The practice of drinking tea has a long history in China, having originated there. The history of tea in China is long and complex, for the Chinese have enjoyed tea for millennia. Scholars hailed the brew as a cure for a variety of ailments; the nobility considered the consumption of good tea as a mark of their status, and the common people simply enjoyed its flavour. In , the discovery of the earliest known physical evidence of tea from the mausoleum of Emperor Jing of Han in Xi'an was announced, indicating that tea from the genus Camellia was drunk by Han dynasty emperors as early as 2nd century BC.

Although tea originated in China, during the Tang dynasty, Chinese tea generally represents tea leaves which have been processed using methods inherited from ancient China. According to popular legend, tea was discovered by Chinese Emperor Shen Nong in BCE when a leaf from a nearby shrub fell into water the emperor was boiling.

The beverage is considered one of the seven necessities of Chinese life, along with firewood, rice, oil, salt, soy sauce and vinegar. This period also known as the "Spring and Autumn Period", it is where Chinese people first enjoyed the juice extracted from the tea leaves that they chewed. Tea culture in China differs from that in European countries like Britain and other Asian countries like Japan in preparation, taste, and occasion wherein it is consumed.

Even today, tea is consumed regularly, both at casual and formal occasions. In addition to being a popular beverage, tea is used in traditional Chinese medicine, as well as in Chinese cuisine. Green tea is one of the main worldwide teas originating in China. The overwhelmingly large variety of Chinese cuisine comes mainly from the practice of dynastic period, when emperors would host banquets with over dishes per meal. Over time, many dishes became part of the everyday-citizen culture.

Some of the highest quality restaurants with recipes close to the dynastic periods include Fangshan restaurant in Beihai Park Beijing and the Oriole Pavilion. It consisted of at least unique dishes from the Manchu and Han Chinese culture during the Qing dynasty , and it is only reserved and intended for the Emperors. The meal was held for three whole days, across six banquets. The culinary skills consisted of cooking methods from all over Imperial China.

The Kangxi Emperor wanted to resolve the disputes so he held a banquet during his 66th birthday celebrations. The banquet consisted of Manchu and Han dishes, with officials from both ethnic groups attending the banquet together. After the Wuchang Uprising , common people learned about the imperial banquet.

The original meal was served in the Forbidden City in Beijing. Chinese culture consists of many subcultures.

Caffeine constricts the blood vessels, which can lessen head pain. Too much caffeine may trigger migraines in some people so instead of coffee , you might try tea, which tends to have less caffeine. Doctors to Talk To See your dentist: If you clench your teeth or have jaw misalignment, tooth decay, abscesses, or post-extraction infection, these can be a source of headaches. If you need glasses, but it has gone undiagnosed. Your eyestrain could be causing unnecessary headaches. See your ear, nose and throat specialist: If you have untreated infections, perforations, or other problems with your ears, nose, and throat, these could cause headaches.

To get rid of a headache, take an over-the-counter pain reliever and find a quiet, dark place to lie down for 30 minutes. While you're lying down, apply a cool compress to the part of your head that aches. If you're unable to lie down for 30 minutes, try gently massaging your temples with your thumbs or rubbing your neck and shoulders to relieve tension. You can also drink a few glasses of water in case your headache is caused by dehydration.

To learn how to get rid of a headache with natural remedies like ginger and tea, read the article! If you frequently have headaches brought on by car sickness, take an over the counter drug such as Dramamine an hour before you have to be in the car. If you must be awake, select a non-drowsy variety.

Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 11,, times. Know your type of headache. Knowing this can help you find out the best way to treat your headache. Take an over-the-counter pain reliever.

Most painkillers won't kick in for about hours, so take a dose as soon as you start feeling the headache coming on. Even if you're already in the depths of misery, a quick dose of ibuprofen, acetaminophen, naproxen, aspirin or even a capsaicin nasal spray can take the edge off. Know when to seek medical assistance immediately. If your headache includes other symptoms, it may be a sign of a more severe condition, such as stroke, encephalitis, or meningitis. See a doctor immediately or call the emergency services if your headache also includes: Use caffeine carefully——it can be a double-edged sword.

Though caffeine which is included in some OTC pain relievers can initially help a headache, it can also lead to more headaches over time by developing or worsening a caffeine dependence.

During headache attacks, adenosine is elevated in the bloodstream. Caffeine helps by blocking adenosine receptors. Drink plenty of water. Dehydration can lead to a headache, especially if you've vomited recently or you're hungover. You may gradually feel the pain start to ease. For men, drink at least 13 cups 3 liters of water a day. For women, drink at least 9 cups 2. You should drink more if you exercise frequently, live in a hot or humid environment, have an illness that causes vomiting or diarrhea, or are breastfeeding.

Find a quiet, dark place to take a break. If you can, try to lie down and relax for at least 30 minutes. Shut the blinds, turn off the lights, and focus on your breathing. Practice progressive muscle relaxation. Progressive muscle relaxation can help ease headache pain. Use a cool compress. Placing something soft and cool over your forehead and eyes can help the blood vessels constrict, which will reduce inflammation and may ease your headache pain.

This works particularly well if the problem is concentrated in your temples or sinuses. Massage your face and scalp. Particularly if you suffer from tension headaches, massage can help improve circulation and relieve tension, which will help relieve the pain of your headache. Tension headaches can be caused by a variety of things, from poor posture to jaw clenching to strained muscles. Anxiety and depression may also trigger tension headaches.

Massage your neck and shoulders. Tension in your neck and shoulders can cause headaches. Stretching and strengthening your neck muscles can help relieve chronic headaches, [17] but they may help in the moment as well.

Here is a simple routine to stretch your neck muscles: You should feel the stretch in the back of your neck. Return your head to the upright position. Slowly twist your head to one side. Hold for seconds. Return to facing forward, then repeat, looking the other direction. Return to looking straight ahead of you. Slowly lower your head so that your ear is approaching your shoulder but do not lift the shoulder.

Lift your head to the upright position, then lower your other ear towards the shoulder and hold for seconds. Do not stretch to the point of pain.

Repeat exercises as necessary. Acupressure may help you relieve tension and headache pain, especially if your headaches are caused by muscle tension or stress. People around the world use a variety of tricks to distract themselves from pain. If you're in the midst of a headache, don't worry about learning something new — stick to whatever is closest to your comfort zone.

Some popular options include: Listening to binaural beats Try to just calm down. If you can fall asleep, that might help. Sometimes, breathing itself can be a cure. It sounds obvious, because breathing is just something we do, but relaxation and deep breathing can actually be something that you need to focus on.

Deep, regular breathing can remove tension and relax you and your headache in minutes. Use natural remedies with caution. There are some natural remedies that might work to treat your headache.

Be aware that natural remedies are often not backed with scientific research or approved by the FDA or other licensing agencies. Look for standardized herbal supplements that contain a specified amount of the active ingredient in every dose. There are several herbal remedies that are considered to have value for getting rid of headaches. As with any treatment, use with caution, and stop using them immediately if you experience unpleasant side-effects.

Aromatherapy preparations vary considerably, but some of the more commonly used essential oils for headache treatment include lavender, sweet marjoram, and chamomile. Use for neck massaging, in a bath, or to inhale.

Mix five drops rosemary oil, five drops nutmeg oil, five drops lavender oil in a carrier oil such as olive or coconut oil. Massage onto the neck and upper back area. Lack of food can cause a headache, so make sure you've eaten something recently. Some foods and beverages may also trigger headaches red wine, MSG, and chocolate are common culprits. You may also be able to help treat headache pain by eating certain foods. Get plenty of sleep. Having good "sleep hygiene"-- getting plenty of good quality sleep-- can help you feel better generally and can reduce headache occurrences.

Adults should get at least hours of sleep each night. Limit your "screen time" before bed Only use your bed for sleep and intimacy Limit caffeine consumption in the later part of the day Begin dimming the lights and giving yourself time to "wind down" before preparing for bed. Limit your exposure to fragrances. Try switching to unscented products and ask those to whom you spend a lot of time in proximity to do the same.

Remove or unplug scented air fresheners from your living or working space as well. Although this won't alleviate your headache straight away, making dietary changes in the longer term can potentially remove a source of headaches for you in the future. Reduce your intake of caffeine. Caffeine can induce headaches. Ironically, withdrawal from caffeine will probably cause a temporary headache, but once you're through the withdrawal period, you'll notice a positive difference.

You might consider avoiding or minimizing potential headache-triggering foods, especially those containing MSG, nitrites and nitrates cured meats , tyramines aged cheese, wine, beer, and processed meats , sulphites dried fruits, condiments, and wine , and salicylates tea, vinegar, and some fruit. If your back or neck are misaligned, or you're suffering from poor posture and muscle tension, it's important to fix this source of pain.

While you can try to improve your musculoskeletal problems through exercise such as stretching, yoga, or pilates , it is usually important to also see a specialist such as a physiotherapist or a chiropractor to assess and treat your condition. Yoga aimed at reducing tension can remove or minimize headaches and prevent them from reoccurring. Simple neck rolling or relaxation yoga exercises are best.

Set up an ergonomically correct workstation. The way that you're sitting at the desk and using a computer might be contributing to your headache. Be sure that everything is at the right height and distance for your size. We often end up slouching and pushing our necks out of alignment when using computers and other digital devices. If your neck is usually bent forward, move your computer so that you can look straight ahead while working.

Take regular breaks from all desk work and computer use. Exercise your eyes by looking at different distances for a few minutes every hour and do some basic body stretches. See a range of health professionals. Many health issues can cause headaches, so if your headaches continue to be a problem for you, seeing specialists to address other problems can help you reduce your headaches. If you're angry, irritable, frustrated, etc.

Anxiety, stress, and depression can also cause headaches. Seek professional counseling or psychological help for mapping out some fruitful ways to manage your emotions if they're dominating your approach to life every day. Try yawning to reduce facial tension. Practice relaxation exercises before stress-producing events like exams, getting married, taking a driver's test, etc. Keep a record of your headaches. This will help you to identify patterns that bring about headaches,.

Cigarette smoke contains substances that are known to cause headaches, such as carbon monoxide. Cigarettes also contain things like nicotine that constrict blood vessels, causing headaches, and also keep the liver from being able to process headache medication. Headaches can also be caused by exposure to second-hand smoke, especially if you have a smoke allergy or sensitivity. Identify the type of headache you're experiencing.

Most headaches are tension or lifestyle induced and aren't harmful, even though they're painful and can prevent you from fulfilling your tasks.

If you experience frequent headaches, a severe headache, a headache that won't respond to analgesics, or a headache that is accompanied by other symptoms, consult your doctor or health professional for immediate investigation and a proper diagnosis. There's a wide variety of possible causes, which is why it's so important to seek further treatment if your headache issue doesn't resolve. Prevent a tension headache by reducing stress.

Tension headaches are the most common type of headache. Usually, they aren't as painful as other headaches, but they can last for hours or even days. A tension headache tends to form as a result of muscle contraction, and is commonly felt like a band behind the eyes and across the forehead. This type of headache tends to respond well to painkillers, rest, and alleviation of the source of stress. Prevent migraine headaches with exercise.

Migraines may be genetically linked, although researchers are not certain exactly what causes migraines. There are sometimes visual problems—called "aura"— such as seeing stars, flickering objects, and even partial loss of vision. Some migraines also cause numbness or weakness. Migraines can be caused by reactions to food, stressors, hormonal changes, an accident, medications, or other unknown triggers. Migraines require special medical attention If you frequently experience them, see a doctor.

Manage a cluster headache by avoiding alcohol and nicotine. Researchers don't know exactly what causes cluster headaches, so you can't prevent the first onset of a cluster headache. They can also involve drooping eyelids, nasal discharge and watery eyes.

There are some drugs and treatments that can alleviate the symptoms. Prevent a medication overuse headache MOH by monitoring your painkiller use. The medication overuse headache MOH , or "rebound headache", stems from withdrawal symptoms from the long-term use of pain relief medication usually for tension headaches.

MOH headaches are treatable. In most cases, just stop using the medication and your headaches should stop within a few days. Mayo Clinic School of Medicine is the first in the nation to integrate a science of health care delivery certificate program into medical degree training.

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