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They come in any number of different shapes. Researchers at Florida State University said that apples are a "miracle fruit. Now, does that mean—I just want to make sure if I understand this right. The first building blocks are the DNA letters. If they give away this information from the medical records they get money. Relying solely on fiber supplements is unwise because they don't contain the many essential nutrients found in high-fiber foods.
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Depending on how old you are, it's pretty likely that you have eyelash mites. These tiny creatures live on old skin cells and the natural oil sebum produced by human hair follicles. They are usually harmless, though they can cause an allergic reaction in a minority of people.
Eyelash mites typically grow to a third of a millimetre and are near-transparent, so you are unlikely to see them with the naked eye. Put an eyelash hair or eyebrow hair under the microscope, though, and you may find them, as they spend most of their time right at the base of the hair where it meets the skin.
Around half the population have them, a proportion that rises as we get older. Your eyes are very sensitive, able to detect just a few photons of light. If you take a look on a very clear night at the constellation of Andromeda, a little fuzzy patch of light is just visible with the naked eye. If you can make out that tiny blob, you are seeing as far as is humanly possible without technology. Andromeda is the nearest large galaxy to our own Milky Way. But "near" is a relative term in intergalactic space — the Andromeda galaxy is 2.
When the photons of light that hit your eye began their journey, there were no human beings. We were yet to evolve. You are seeing an almost inconceivable distance and looking back in time through 2. Despite what you've probably been told, you have more than five senses. Here's a simple example. Put your hand a few centimetres away from a hot iron.
None of your five senses can tell you the iron will burn you. Yet you can feel that the iron is hot from a distance and won't touch it. This is thanks to an extra sense — the heat sensors in your skin.
Similarly we can detect pain or tell if we are upside down. Close your eyes and touch your nose. You aren't using the big five to find it, but instead proprioception. This is the sense that detects where the parts of your body are with respect to each other. It's a meta-sense, combining your brain's knowledge of what your muscles are doing with a feel for the size and shape of your body. Without using your basic five senses, you can still guide a hand unerringly to touch your nose.
Just like a chicken, your life started off with an egg. Not a chunky thing in a shell, but an egg nonetheless. However, there is a significant difference between a human egg and a chicken egg that has a surprising effect on your age.
Human eggs are tiny. They are, after all, just a single cell and are typically around 0. Your egg was formed in your mother — but the surprising thing is that it was formed when she was an embryo. The formation of your egg, and the half of your DNA that came from your mother, could be considered as the very first moment of your existence.
And it happened before your mother was born. Say your mother was 30 when she had you, then on your 18th birthday you were arguably over 48 years old. We are used to thinking of genes as being the controlling factor that determines what each of us is like physically, but genes are only a tiny part of our DNA.
Some parts act to control "switches" that turn genes on and off, or program the production of other key compounds. For a long time it was a puzzle how around 20, genes far fewer than some breeds of rice were enough to specify exactly what we were like.
If you are like most people, you will locate your conscious mind roughly behind your eyes, as if there were a little person sitting there, steering the much larger automaton that is your body. You know there isn't really a tiny figure in there, pulling the levers, but your consciousness seems to have an independent existence, telling the rest of your body what to do.
In reality, much of the control comes from your unconscious. Some tasks become automatic with practice, so that we no longer need to think about the basic actions. When this happens the process is handled by one of the most primitive parts of the brain, close to the brain stem. However even a clearly conscious action such as picking up an object seems to have some unconscious precursors, with the brain firing up before you make the decision to act.
There is considerable argument over when the conscious mind plays its part, but there is no doubt that we owe a lot more to our unconscious than we often allow. The picture of the world we "see" is artificial. Our brains don't produce an image the way a video camera works. Instead, the brain constructs a model of the world from the information provided by modules that measure light and shade, edges, curvature and so on.
This makes it simple for the brain to paint out the blind spot, the area of your retina where the optic nerve joins, which has no sensors. For the past ten years, scientists all over the world have been painstakingly trying to read the tiny instructions buried inside our DNA.
And now, finally, the "Human Genome" has been decoded. We're at the moment that scientists wait for. This is what we wanted to do, you know? We're now examining and interpreting the genetic code. This is the ultimate imaginable thing that one could do scientifically And what it's telling us is so surprising and so strange and so unexpected. Fifty percent of the genes in a banana are in us? All the machinery for replicating your DNA, all the machinery for controlling the cell cycle, the cell surface, for making nutrients, all that's the same.
So what does any of this information have to do with you or me? Perhaps more than we could possibly imagine. Which one of us will get cancer or arthritis or Alzheimer's? Will there be cures? Will parents in the future be able to determine their children's genetic destinies?
We've opened a box here that has got a huge amount of valuable information. It is the key to understanding disease and in the long run to curing disease. But having opened it, we're also going to be very uncomfortable with that information for some time to come.
Yes, some of the information you are about to see will make you very uncomfortable. On the other hand, some of it I think you'll find amazing and hopeful.
And tonight we will not only report the latest discoveries of the Human Genome project, you will meet the people who made those discoveries possible, and who competed furiously to be first to be done. And as you watch our program on the human genome, we will be raising a number of issues: And we'd like to have your thoughts on all these subjects. The results will be immediately available and continually updated.
We'll be right back. This program is funded in part by the Northwestern Mutual Foundation. Some people already know Northwestern Mutual can help plan for your children's education. Are you there yet? Northwestern Mutual Financial Network. Scientific achievement is fueled by the simple desire to make things clear. Major funding for this program is provided by the National Science Foundation, America's investment in the future. To begin, let's go back four and some billion years ago to wherever it was that the first speck of life appeared on earth, maybe on the warm surface of a bubble.
That speck did something that has gone on uninterrupted ever since. It wrote a message. It was a chemical message that it passed to its children, which then passed it on to its children, and to its children, and so on. The message has passed from the very first organism, all the way down through time, to you and me—like a continuous thread through all living things.
It's more elaborate now, of course, but that message, very simply, is the secret of life. And here is that message contained in this stunning little constellation of chemicals we call DNA. You've seen it in this form, the classic double helix, but since we're going to be spending a lot of time talking about DNA, I wondered, "What does it look like when it's raw, you know, in real life?
DNA has a reputation for being such a mystical high-falutin' sort of molecule—all this information, your future, your heredity. So this here's DNA. It's very, very long strands of molecules, these double helices of DNA, which, when you get them all together, just look like little threads of cotton.
And these strands were literally pulled from cells, blood cells or maybe skin cells of a human being? Whoever contributed this DNA, you can tell from this whether or not they might be at early risk for Alzheimer's disease, you can tell whether or not they might be at early risk for breast cancer.
And there's probably about other things you can tell that we don't know how to tell yet but will be able to tell. And it's really incredibly unlikely that you can tell all that from this.
But that's DNA for you. That apparently is the secret of life just hanging off there on the tube. And already DNA has told us things that no one It turns out that human beings have only twice as many genes as a fruit fly.
Now how can that be? We are such complex and magnificent creatures and fruit flies DNA also tells us that we are more closely related to worms and to yeast than most of us would ever have imagined. But how do you read what's inside a molecule? Well, if it's DNA, if you turn it so you can look at it from just the right angle, you will see in the middle what look like steps in a ladder.
Each step is made up of two chemicals, cytosine and guanine or thymine and adenine. They come always in pairs, called base pairs, either C and G, or T and A for short.
This is, step by step, a code, three billion steps long—the formula for a human being. First of all, I'm wondering Is this, by the way, what it looks like? Now how small is this, if in a real DNA molecule the distance between the two walls is how wide? That's one billionth of a meter when it's clumped up in a very particular way.
Well no, it's curled up some like that but you see it's more than that. You can't curl it up too much because these little negatively charged things will repel each other so you fold it on its I'm going to break your molecule. And then it's folded up like this. And then those are folded up on top of each other. And so, in fact, if you were to stretch out all of the DNA it would run, oh, I don't know, thousands and thousands of feet.
But the main thing about this is the ladder, the steps of this ladder. I'm sorry, whatever the rules are of the grammar, yeah Well, of your children. This is what you pass to your children. You know people have known for years that your kids look a lot like you. Well it's because you must pass them something, some instructions that give them the eyes they have and the hair color they have and the nose shape they do. And the only way you pass it to them is in these sentences.
And to show you the true power of this molecule, we're going to start with one atom deep inside, and we pull back and you see it form its As and Ts and Cs and Gs and the classic double spiral.
And then it starts the mysterious process that creates a healthy new baby. And the interesting thing is that every human baby, every baby born, is So the tiniest differences in our genes can be hugely important, can contribute to differences in height, physique, maybe even talents, aptitudes and can also explain what can break, what can make us sick.
Cracking the code of those minuscule differences in DNA that influence health and illness is what the Human Genome Project is all about. Since , scientists all over the world in university and government labs, have been involved in a massive effort to read all three billion As, Ts, Gs, and Cs of human DNA.
They predicted it would take at least 15 years. That was partly because in the early days of the project, a scientist could spend years It took 10 years to find the one genetic mistake that causes cystic fibrosis. Another 10 years to find the gene for Huntington's disease. Fifteen years to find one of the genes that increase the risk for breast cancer. One letter at a time, painfully slowly Robert Waterston, a pioneer in mapping DNA, to show us the way it used to be done.
The original ladders for DNA sequence, we actually read by putting a little letter next to the band that we were calling and then writing those down on a piece of paper or into the computer after that. And we haven't mentioned the hardest part. This here, magnified 50, times is an actual clump of DNA, chromosome Now if you look inside you will find, of course, hundreds of millions of As, and Cs, and Ts and Gs, but it turns out that only about one percent of them are active and important.
These are the genes that scientists are searching for. So somewhere in this dense chemical forest are genes involved in deafness, Alzheimer's, cancer, cataracts. This is such a maze scientists need a map. But at the old pace that would take close to forever. And then came the revolution. In the last ten years the entire process has been computerized. That cost hundreds of millions of dollars. But now, instead of decoding a few hundred letters by hand in a day, together these machines can do a thousand every second and that has made all the difference.
This is something that's going to go in the textbooks. Everybody, when the Genome project was being born, was consciously aware of their role in history. Getting the letters out is I mean, you can have very high falutin' metaphors for this kind of stuff.
This is basically a parts list. Blueprints and all these fancy It's just a parts list. It's a parts list with a lot of parts. If you take an airplane, a Boeing , I think it has like , parts. If I gave you a parts list for the Boeing in one sense you'd know a lot. You'd know , components that have got to be there, screws and wires and rudders and things like that. On the other hand, I bet you wouldn't know how to put it together.
And I bet you wouldn't know why it flies. Well we're in the same boat. We now have a parts list. That's what the human genome project is about is getting the parts list. If you want to understand the plane you have to have the parts list but that's not enough to understand why it flies.
Of course you'd be crazy not to start with the parts list. And one reason it's so important to understand all those parts, to decode every letter of the genome, is because sometimes, out of three billion base pairs in our DNA, just one single letter can make a difference. The two things that I think of the most about Hayden, which a lot of people got from him right from the beginning is that he was always, I thought, very funny.
I mean he loved to smile and laugh and he just used to guffaw. And this was later when he was about a year old, he just found the funniest things hilarious. And so he and I would just crack each other up. Hayden seemed to be developing normally for the first few months but Allison began to notice that some things were not quite right. I was very anxious all the time with Hayden. I sensed that something was not the same.
I would see my friends changing the diaper of their child who was around the same age, their newborn, and see the physical movement, and the legs moving, and things like that, and Hayden didn't do that. Doctors told them that Hayden was just developing a bit slowly.
But by the time he turned a year old, it was clear something serious was wrong. He never crawled, he never talked, he never ate with his fingers and he seemed to be going backwards, not progressing. I remember the last time he laughed. And I took a trip with him out to pick up a suit because we were going to a wedding that night, and we came back and it was really windy, and he just loves to feel the wind, and so we had a great time.
We came back and I propped him up right here on the couch and I was sitting next to him and he just kind of threw his head back and laughed, like, you know, what a fun trip, you know? And that the last time he was able to laugh. It turned out that Hayden had Tay Sachs disease, a genetic condition that slowly destroys a baby's brain.
What happens is the child appears normal at birth, and over the course of the first year begins to miss developmental milestones. So at six months a child should be turning over—a child is unable to turn over, to sit up, to stand, to walk, to talk. Tay Sachs begins at one infinitesimal spot on the DNA ladder, when just one letter goes wrong.
Say this cluster of atoms is a picture of that letter, a mistake here can come down to just four atoms. But since genes create proteins, that error creates a problem in this protein which is supposed to dissolve the fat in the brain. But now the protein doesn't work. So fat builds up, swells the brain, and eventually strangles and crushes critical brain cells.
And all of this is the result of one bad letter in that baby' s DNA. In most cases it's a single base change. As we say, a letter difference. Tay Sachs is a relentlessly progressive disease. In the year since his diagnosis, Hayden has gone blind. He can't eat solid food.
It's harder and harder for him to swallow. He can't move on his own at all. And he has seizures as often as 10 times a day. For children with classical Tay Sachs Disease, there's only one outcome. And children die by the age of five to seven, sometimes even before age five. As it happens, Tim Lord has an identical twin brother. And of course, Charlie called his wife Blyth to tell her the news.
Blyth had been Allison's roommate in college and her best friend. Charlie told me that Hayden had Tay Sachs. He called me on the phone and he told me immediately what it was. I went up into the computer and looked it up and then just couldn't believe what I read. Blyth and Charlie had a three-year- old daughter, Taylor, and a baby girl named Cameron. Cameron was healthy and happy except for one small thing.
On the NTSAD Website it talks about typically between six and eight months is when the signs start coming, but one of the early signs is that they startle easily. And Hayden had always had a really heavy startle response. But we had noticed that Cameron had a comparable startle response.
Not quite as severe but absolutely not like Taylor had had. As soon as she saw that early warning sign on the Tay Sachs Website, Blyth went to get herself and Cameron tested. It was another week. It was exactly a week until we got the final results on Cameron's blood work. And then the Tuesday before Thanksgiving we went into our pediatrician's office and he had the results, and we found out that night that Blyth was a carrier and that Cameron had Tay Sachs.
Tay Sachs is a very rare condition and it usually occurs in specific groups, like Ashkenazi Jews. And even then, the baby must inherit the bad gene from both parents. So even though there is a Tay Sachs test, the Lords had no reason to think they would be at risk.
And yet incredibly, all four of them, Tim and Charlie and both their wives—all four were carriers. That was an unbelievably bad roll of the genetic dice. Charlie and I are incredibly close and have been all our lives.
And when I think about him and Blyth having to go through this, it just seems really cruel. It just seems too much. I had already geared myself up for being my brother's rock and I couldn't imagine having to help him and go through it myself. For families like the Lords, and for everybody, the Human Genome project offers the chance to find out early if we're at risk for all kinds of diseases.
I would like to see a really aggressive push to develop a test for hundreds of genetic diseases so that parents could be informed before they started to have children as to the dangers that face them.
And I think it's within our grasp. Now that they've mapped the human genome, I mean, the information is there for people to begin to sort through.
They're horrible, horrible, horrible diseases and if there's any way that you can be tested for a whole host of them and not have them affect a child, I think it's something that we have to focus on. Hayden Lord died a few months before his third birthday. What makes this story especially hard to bear is we now know that a loss that huge—and it was a catastrophe, by any measure—started with a single error, a few atoms across, buried inside a cell.
Now, that something so small could trigger such an enormous result is a perspective that is incredibly frightening. Except that now geneticists have figured out how to see many of these tiny errors before they become catastrophes. When you think about that, that's an extraordinary thing, to spot a catastrophe when it's still an insignificant dot in a cell, which is the promise of the Human Genome Project.
It is, first and foremost, an early warning system for a host of diseases which will give, hopefully, parents, doctors and scientists an advantage that we have never had before. Because when you can see trouble coming way, way before it starts you have a chance to stop it, or treat it. Eventually you might cure it. And that's why, when Congress created the Human Genome Project in , the challenge was to get a complete list of our As, Ts, Cs and Gs as quickly as possible, so the business of making tests, medicines, and cures could begin.
They figured it would take about 15 years to decode a human being, and at the time that seemed reasonable. Until this man, scientist, entrepreneur and speedboat enthusiast Craig Venter, decided that he could do it faster, much faster.
Once you have two sailboats on the water going approximately in the same direction, they're racing. And science works very much the same way. If you have two labs remotely working on the same thing, one tries to get there faster, or better, higher quality, something different, in part because our society recognizes only first place.
Back in , Venter was one of many government scientists painstakingly decoding proteins and genes. His focus was one protein in the brain. It took ten years to get the protein and it took a whole year to get letters of genetic code. So you're sitting there thinking there must be a better way when you're gazing out the window? And that's when he learned that someone had invented a new machine that could identify Cs and Ts and As and Gs with remarkable speed. And Craig Venter just loves machines that go fast.
I immediately contacted the company to see if I could get one of the first machines. And here's how they work. Human DNA is chopped by robots into tiny pieces. These pieces are copied over and over again in bacteria and then tagged with colored dyes. A laser bounces light off each snip of DNA and the colors that it sees, represent individual letters in the genetic code.
And these computers can do this 24 hours a day, every day. So there's just a blue one coming up so that's a C coming up. You could read this and you could write this all down. Then somehow all of these little pieces have to be put together again in the right order.
Venter's dream was to have hundreds of new machines at his fingertips so he quit his government job and formed a company he called Celera Genomics. Celera from the Latin word celerity, meaning speed. And this is what he built. Craig Venter grew up in California, left high school and spent a year as a surfing bum—on the beach by day and a stock boy at Sears by night.
He was, inevitably, drafted, went to Vietnam with the Navy. That's him way over there on the left. He was eventually assigned to a Naval hospital in Danang during the Tet offensive when Americans were taking very heavy casualties.
At 21, he was in the triage unit, where they decide who will live and who will die. When you're young and you see a lot of people die and they all could be you, do you then feel that you sort of owe them cures?
Cures that they'll never get? Or am I over-romanticizing? Well, the motivations become complex. That's certainly a part of it. Also I think surviving the year there was If you're not in that situation, you can never truly have it in perspective. But also I feel that I've had this tremendous gift for all these years since I got back in , and I wanted to make sure I did something with it.
In the spring of , Venter announced that he and his company were going to sequence all three billion letters of the human genome in two years. Remember, the government said it would take There was a lot of arrogance that went with that program. They were going to do it at their pace.
And a lot of the scientists, you know, if they were really being honest with you, would tell you that they planned to retire doing this program. That's not what we think is the right way to do science, especially science that affects so many people's lives.
Craig is a high testosterone male who has He loves rattling people's cages and he's done that consistently in the genome project. Craig Venter's announcement that his team would finish the entire genome in just two years galvanized everybody working on the public project.
Now they were scrambling to keep up. There are some limitations. We don't think we can get this thing to go any faster at the moment without throwing a lot more robotics at it. The arm physically takes twenty seconds to Francis Collins, the head of the Human Genome Project, was determined that Celera was not going to beat his teams to the prize.
He made a dramatic decision to try to cut five full years off the original plan. When the major Genome Centers met and agreed to go for broke here, I don't think there was anybody in the room that was very confident we could do that. I mean you could sit down with a piece of paper and make projections, if everything went really well, that might get you there, but there were so many ways this could have just run completely off the track.
At MIT they decided to try to scale up their effort fold and that meant a major change in their usual academic pace. We basically had a goal since March to get to a plate-a-minute operation from womb to tomb all the way through.
In the fall of , representatives from the five major labs come to check out Eric Lander's operation. All the big honchos in the Human Genome Project are here: She's from the Sanger Center in England. If they want to finish the genome before Craig Venter, these folks have to figure out how to outfit their labs with a lot of new and fancy and unfamiliar equipment.
And they've got to do it fast. Just like a bad Christmas present, assembly is required. And the instructions are of course not always clear.
Since one's on the cutting edge I guess they always call it "the bleeding edge," right? Nothing really is working as you expect. All the stuff we're doing will be working perfectly as soon as we're ready to junk it. The MIT crew is particularly excited about their brand new three-hundred-thousand-dollar state-of-the-art DNA purifying machine. All right, maiden voyage. It didn't ask me for a password. It's sort of like flying a very large plane and repairing it while you're flying.
You want to figure out what went wrong. And you also realize that you're spending, oh, tens of thousands of dollars an hour. So you feel under a little pressure to sort of work this out as quickly as you can.
So he calls the customer service line. And of course he's put on hold. Anyway, it turns out that the three-hundred-thousand-dollar machine does have one tiny little valve that's broken, and so it doesn't work. You never know whether the problem is due to some robot, some funky little biochemistry, some chemical that you've got that isn't really working. And so it's incredibly complicated.
So we have a test transformation where we transform a tenth of our ligation. And all of our thermo-cyclers have three-eighty-four-well plates. So if you basically determine where your 96 well When you try to ramp something up, anything that's the slightest bit kludgy suddenly becomes a major bottleneck.
We talked about doing a full-up test today and we weren't quite feeling good about doing that yet. There was a considerable sense of white knuckles amongst all of us, 'cause here we'd made this promise. We're on the record here saying we're going to do this.
And things weren't working. The machines were breaking down. It's got to work now. The time is running out. The fall of that year was really sort of the determining time. The centers really proved their mettle. And every one of them began to catch this rising curve and ride it. And we began to see data appearing at prodigious rates.
By early , a thousand base pairs a second were rolling out of this combined enterprise, seven days a week, 24 hours a day, a thousand base pairs a second. Then it really starts to go. And those thousands of base pairs poured out of the university labs directly onto the Internet, updated every night. It's available for anybody and everybody, including, by the way, the competition.
Celera admits they got lots of data directly from the government. And Tony White, who runs the company that owns Celera, says "Why not? That's publicly available data. You know, it's publicly I mean, again, are they creating it to give it to mankind except Celera?
Is that the idea? It isn't about us getting the data. It's about this academic jealousy. It's about the fact that our data, in combination with theirs, gives us a perceived, unfair advantage over this so-called "race.
Since Celera was sequencing the genome with private money, some critics wondered, "Why should the government put so much cash into the exact same research? In the United States, we invested in a national highway system in the s. We got tremendous return for building roads for free and letting everybody drive up and down them for whatever purpose they wanted. We're building a road up and down the chromosomes for free. People can drive up and down those chromosomes for anything they want to.
They can make discoveries. They can learn about medicine. They can learn about history. It is worth the public investment to make those roads available. But wait a second - What I really want to know is, if you are making a roadmap of a human being, which human beings are we mapping?
I mean, humans come in so many varieties, so whose genes exactly are we looking at? It's mostly a guy from Buffalo and a woman from Buffalo. That's because the laboratory The laboratory was a laboratory in Buffalo. And so they put an ad in Buffalo newspapers and they got random volunteers from Buffalo. They got about 20 of them, and chose at random this sample and that sample and that sample.
So nobody knows who they are. We tried to have some diversity in terms of And so some of the volunteers were here on the staff, and I have a pretty good idea, yes. Uh, but, I can't disclose that. Because it doesn't matter. Well if you're the head of the company and you're watching the decoding of "moi," that has a little Miss Piggy quality to it. Well, any scientist that I know would love to be looking at their own genetic code.
I mean, how could you not want to and work in this field? Well, I don't know, I don't work in this field. But I do wonder, could any small group, I mean, could that guy from Buffalo, could he really be a stand-in for all human kind? Hasn't it been drummed into us since birth that we are all different, each and every one of us completely unique?
We certainly look different. People come in so many shapes and colors and sizes the DNA of these humans has got to be significantly different from the DNA of this human. The genetic difference between any two people: Those two, and any two people on this planet are It's only one letter in a thousand difference.
And if I were to bring secretly into another room, a black man, an Asian man, and a white man, and show you only their genetic code, could you tell which one was the white? Well, it tells us that, first, as a species we're very, very closely related. Wait, wait, wait, wait. This video and mp3 song of Nutrition in human beings is published by 7activestudio on 24 Sep Nutrition in human beings in hindi life processes ncert class 10 science cbse 10th biology.
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