Nutrition Landscape Information System (NLiS)
The omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid EPA , which can be made in the human body from the omega-3 essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid ALA , or taken in through marine food sources, serves as a building block for series 3 prostaglandins e. Although the association between overweight and insulin resistance is clear, the exact likely multifarious causes of insulin resistance remain less clear. A diet that contains adequate amounts of amino acids especially those that are essential is particularly important in some situations: National health accounts provide a large set of indicators based on information on expenditure collected within an internationally recognized framework. Governmental organisations have been working on nutrition literacy interventions in non-primary health care settings to address the nutrition information problem in the U.
This is a population-based surveillance that involves collecting data from a sample of reporting sites sometimes called sentinel sites. For example, one of the most common sentinel surveillance systems used in the United States is for influenza. Selected health care providers report the number of cases of influenza-like illness to their state health department on a weekly basis. This surveillance allows states to monitor trends using a relatively small amount of information. Zoonotic surveillance system diseases found in animals that can be transmitted to humans involves a system for detecting infected animals.
Mosquitoes and blood were collected and tested for WNV in 10 counties. In addition, veterinarians were asked to test horses with neurologic symptoms consistent with WNV. Health care providers were reminded of reporting and diagnostic criteria for possible human cases of WNV Blackmore As a result, detection of WNV led to public health control measures, such as advising the public to protect against mosquito bites and intensifying mosquito abatement efforts.
The purpose of this system is to gather information about negative effects experienced by people who have received approved drugs and other therapeutic agents. Reports came from health care providers, including physicians, pharmacists, and nurses, as well as members of the general public, such as patients or lawyers, and manufacturers.
Because AERS and VAERS are passive surveillance systems, they may be limited by underreporting or biased reporting, and they cannot be used to determine whether a drug or vaccine caused a specific adverse health event. Instead, these systems are used as early warning signals.
This surveillance system is a relatively new surveillance method that uses clinical information about disease signs and symptoms before a diagnosis is made. It is an active or passive system that uses case definitions that are based entirely on clinical features without any clinical or laboratory diagnosis for example collecting cases of diarrhea, rather than cases of cholera.
This syndromic surveillance system uses electronic data from hospital emergency rooms, and provides the health department with early notification of the outbreak. Registries are a type of surveillance system used for particular conditions, such as cancer and birth defects. They are often established at a state level to collect information about persons diagnosed with the conditions. This information can be used to improve prevention programs. Public health laboratory data is another source of surveillance data which routinely conduct tests for viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens.
Laboratory serotyping provides information about cases that are likely to be linked to a common source. For this reason, serotypes are useful for detecting local, state, or national outbreaks Swaminathan In , more than 40, isolates from the US were reported through this system Center of Disease Control and Prevention Other laboratory system that plays an important role in surveillance is PulseNet, developed by the CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories to monitor foodborne illness outbreaks.
This system enables public health laboratories across the US to compare pulsed-field gel electrophoresis PFGE patterns of bacteria isolated from ill persons and determine whether they are similar. This allows scientists to determine whether an outbreak is occurring, even at geographically distant locations, and can decrease the time required to identify outbreaks of food borne illness and their causes Center of Disease Control and Prevention Syndromic surveillance systems monitor data from school absenteeism logs, emergency call systems, hospitals' over-the-counter drug sale records, Internet searches, and other data sources to detect unusual patterns.
When a spike in activity is seen in any of the monitored systems disease epidemiologists and public health professionals are alerted that there may be an issue. An early awareness and response to a bioterrorist attack could save many lives and potentially stop or slow the spread of the outbreak. The most effective syndromic surveillance systems automatically monitor these systems in real-time, do not require individuals to enter separate information secondary data entry , include advanced analytical tools, aggregate data from multiple systems, across geo-political boundaries and include an automated alerting process.
A syndromic surveillance system based on search queries was first proposed by Gunther Eysenbach , who began work on such a system in More flu -related searches are taken to indicate higher flu activity. The results closely match CDC data, and lead it by 1—2 weeks. The results appeared in Nature. Influenzanet is a syndromic surveillance system based on voluntary reports of symptoms via the internet.
Residents of the participant countries are invited to provide regular reports on the presence or absence of flu related symptoms. The system has been in place and running since in the Netherlands and Belgium. The success of this first initiative led to the implementation of Gripenet in Portugal in followed by Italy in and Brasil , Mexico , and the United Kingdom in Some conditions, especially chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus , are supposed to be routinely managed with frequent laboratory measurements.
Since many laboratory results, at least in Europe and the US, are automatically processed by computerized laboratory information systems, the results are relatively easy to inexpensively collate in special purpose databases or disease registries. Unlike most syndromic surveillance systems, in which each record is assumed to be independent of the others, laboratory data in chronic conditions can be theoretically linked together at the individual patient level.
If patient identifiers can be matched, a chronological record of each patient's laboratory results can be analyzed as well as aggregated to the population level. Laboratory registries allow for the analysis of the incidence and prevalence of the target condition as well as trends in the level of control.
For instance, an NIH -funded program called the Vermedx Diabetes Information System  maintained a registry of laboratory values of diabetic adults in Vermont and northern New York State in the US with several years of laboratory results on thousands of patients.
Since the data contained each patient's name and address, the system was also used to communicate directly with patients when the laboratory data indicated the need for attention.
Out of control test results generated a letter to the patient suggesting they take action with their medical provider. Tests that were overdue generated reminders to have testing performed. The system also generated reminders and alerts with guideline-based advice for the practice as well as a periodic roster of each provider's patients and a report card summarizing the health status of the population.
Clinical and economic evaluations of the system, including a large randomized clinical trial , demonstrated improvements in adherence to practice guidelines and reductions in the need for emergency department and hospital services as well as total costs per patient.
It is now being expanded to other conditions such as chronic kidney disease. The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has linked additional patient services to the registry such as health information and improved access to health care services. As of early , the registry contains over 10 million test results on 3.
Although intended to improve health outcomes and reduce the incidence of the complications of diabetes,  a formal evaluation has not yet been done. Authorized by the Texas Legislature and the state Health Department, the San Antonio Metropolitan Health District  implemented the registry which drew results from all the major clinical laboratories in San Antonio. The program was discontinued in for lack of funds. Laboratory surveillance differs from population-wide surveillance in that it can only monitor patients who are already receiving medical treatment and therefore having lab tests done.
For this reason, it does not identify patients who have never been tested. Therefore, it is more suitable for quality management and care improvement than for epidemiological monitoring of an entire population or catchment area.
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