How one-minute bursts of exercise can boost health for over-60s in just six weeks
High-intensity training, or HIT, purports to offer at least the same benefits as conventional activity but in the fraction of the time and is the subject of much research. Despite its taxonomic classification as a carnivoran , the giant panda's diet is primarily herbivorous , consisting almost exclusively of bamboo. In , Trudeau began writing books and promoting them with infomercials in the U. Highly recommend and have actually recommended to a couple friends already! Its fur is very soft and coarsens with age.
It has evolved from previous ancestors to exhibit larger molars with increased complexity and expanded temporal fossa. The giant panda's paw has a "thumb" and five fingers ; the "thumb" — actually a modified sesamoid bone — helps it to hold bamboo while eating.
The longest belongs to the sloth bear. The giant panda typically lives around 20 years in the wild and up to 30 years in captivity. A seven-year-old female named Jin Yi died in in a zoo in Zhengzhou , China, after showing symptoms of gastroenteritis and respiratory disease. It was found that the cause of death was toxoplasmosis , a disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii and infecting most warm-blooded animals, including humans. The giant panda genome was sequenced in using Illumina dye sequencing.
Despite its taxonomic classification as a carnivoran , the giant panda's diet is primarily herbivorous , consisting almost exclusively of bamboo. Its ability to digest cellulose is ascribed to the microbes in its gut. Ingestion of such a large quantity of material is possible because of the rapid passage of large amounts of indigestible plant material through the short, straight digestive tract. Given this voluminous diet, the giant panda defecates up to 40 times a day.
The giant panda tends to limit its social interactions and avoids steeply sloping terrain to limit its energy expenditures. Two of the panda's most distinctive features, its large size and round face, are adaptations to its bamboo diet. Anthropologist Russell Ciochon observed: This lower metabolic rate and a more sedentary lifestyle allows the giant panda to subsist on nutrient poor resources such as bamboo.
The morphological characteristics of extinct relatives of the giant panda suggest that while the ancient giant panda was omnivorous 7 million years ago mya , it only became herbivorous some Pandas eat any of 25 bamboo species in the wild, such as Fargesia dracocephala  and Fargesia rufa. Bamboo leaves contain the highest protein levels; stems have less. Because of the synchronous flowering, death, and regeneration of all bamboo within a species, the giant panda must have at least two different species available in its range to avoid starvation.
While primarily herbivorous, the giant panda still retains decidedly ursine teeth, and will eat meat, fish, and eggs when available. In captivity, zoos typically maintain the giant panda's bamboo diet, though some will provide specially formulated biscuits or other dietary supplements. Pandas will travel between different habitats if they need to, so they can get the nutrients that they need and to balance their diet for reproduction.
They took note of their foraging and mating habits, and analysed samples of their food and feces. The pandas would move from the valleys into the Qinling Mountains and would only return to the valleys in autumn. During the summer months bamboo shoots rich in protein are only available at higher altitudes which causes low calcium rates in the pandas and during breeding season the pandas would trek back down to eat bamboo leaves rich in calcium.
Although adult giant pandas have few natural predators other than humans, young cubs are vulnerable to attacks by snow leopards , yellow-throated martens ,  eagles, feral dogs, and the Asian black bear.
The giant panda is a terrestrial animal and primarily spends its life roaming and feeding in the bamboo forests of the Qinling Mountains and in the hilly province of Sichuan. Social encounters occur primarily during the brief breeding season in which pandas in proximity to one another will gather. Pandas were thought to fall into the crepuscular category, those who are active twice a day, at dawn and dusk; however, Jindong Zhang found that pandas may belong to a category all of their own, with activity peaks in the morning, afternoon and midnight.
Due to their sheer size, pandas do not need to fear predators like other herbivores. They can therefore be active at any time of the day. Pandas communicate through vocalization and scent marking such as clawing trees or spraying urine. For this reason, pandas do not hibernate , which is similar to other subtropical mammals, and will instead move to elevations with warmer temperatures. Though the panda is often assumed to be docile, it has been known to attack humans, presumably out of irritation rather than aggression.
Initially, the primary method of breeding giant pandas in captivity was by artificial insemination , as they seemed to lose their interest in mating once they were captured. The normal reproductive rate is considered to be one young every two years. Giant pandas reach sexual maturity between the ages of four and eight, and may be reproductive until age Copulation time is short, ranging from 30 seconds to five minutes, but the male may mount her repeatedly to ensure successful fertilization.
The gestation period ranges from 95 to days. Giant pandas give birth to twins in about half of pregnancies. The mother will select the stronger of the cubs, and the weaker will die. The mother is thought to be unable to produce enough milk for two cubs, since she does not store fat. For three to four hours, the mother may leave the den to feed, which leaves the cub defenseless.
One to two weeks after birth, the cub's skin turns gray where its hair will eventually become black. A slight pink color may appear on cub's fur, as a result of a chemical reaction between the fur and its mother's saliva.
A month after birth, the color pattern of the cub's fur is fully developed. Its fur is very soft and coarsens with age. The cub begins to crawl at 75 to 80 days;  mothers play with their cubs by rolling and wrestling with them. The cubs can eat small quantities of bamboo after six months,  though mother's milk remains the primary food source for most of the first year. The interval between births in the wild is generally two years. In July , Chinese scientists confirmed the birth of the first cub to be successfully conceived through artificial insemination using frozen sperm.
Attempts have also been made to reproduce giant pandas by interspecific pregnancy by implanting cloned panda embryos into the uterus of an animal of another species.
This has resulted in panda fetuses, but no live births. In the past, pandas were thought to be rare and noble creatures — the Empress Dowager Bo was buried with a panda skull in her vault. The grandson of Emperor Taizong of Tang is said to have given Japan two pandas and a sheet of panda skin as a sign of goodwill. Unlike many other animals in Ancient China , pandas were rarely thought to have medical uses.
The few known uses include the Sichuan tribal peoples' use of panda urine to melt accidentally swallowed needles, and the use of panda pelts to control menses as described in the Qin Dynasty encyclopedia Erya. Zouyu is a legendary "righteous" animal, which, similarly to a qilin , only appears during the rule of a benevolent and sincere monarch. It is said to be fierce as a tiger , but gentle and strictly vegetarian, and described in some books as a white tiger with black spots.
Puzzled about the real zoological identity of the creature captured during the Yongle era, J. Duyvendak exclaims, "Can it possibly have been a Pandah? The comparative obscurity of the giant panda throughout most of China's history is illustrated by the fact that, despite there being a number of depictions of bears in Chinese art starting from its most ancient times, and the bamboo being one of the favorite subjects for Chinese painters, there are no known preth-century artistic representations of giant pandas.
The West first learned of the giant panda on 11 March , when the French missionary Armand David  received a skin from a hunter. The first Westerner known to have seen a living giant panda is the German zoologist Hugo Weigold , who purchased a cub in Kermit and Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.
In , Ruth Harkness became the first Westerner to bring back a live giant panda, a cub named Su Lin  which went to live at the Brookfield Zoo in Chicago. In , five giant pandas were sent to London. Gifts of giant pandas to American and Japanese zoos formed an important part of the diplomacy of the People's Republic of China PRC in the s, as it marked some of the first cultural exchanges between the PRC and the West. This practice has been termed "panda diplomacy". By , however, pandas were no longer given as gifts.
Since , because of a WWF lawsuit , the United States Fish and Wildlife Service only allows a US zoo to import a panda if the zoo can ensure the PRC will channel more than half of its loan fee into conservation efforts for the giant panda and its habitat.
The issue became embroiled in cross-Strait relations — both over the underlying symbolism, and over technical issues such as whether the transfer would be considered "domestic" or "international", or whether any true conservation purpose would be served by the exchange.
However, when Ma Ying-jeou assumed the presidency in , the offer was accepted, and the pandas arrived in December of that year. Microbes in panda waste are being investigated for their use in creating biofuels from bamboo and other plant materials.
The giant panda is a vulnerable species , threatened by continued habitat loss and habitat fragmentation ,  and by a very low birthrate, both in the wild and in captivity. The giant panda has been a target of poaching by locals since ancient times and by foreigners since it was introduced to the West. Starting in the s, foreigners were unable to poach giant pandas in China because of the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War , but pandas remained a source of soft furs for the locals.
The population boom in China after created stress on the pandas' habitat, and the subsequent famines led to the increased hunting of wildlife, including pandas. During the Cultural Revolution , all studies and conservation activities on the pandas were stopped.
After the Chinese economic reform , demand for panda skins from Hong Kong and Japan led to illegal poaching for the black market , acts generally ignored by the local officials at the time. Though the Wolong National Nature Reserve was set up by the PRC government in to save the declining panda population, few advances in the conservation of pandas were made, owing to inexperience and insufficient knowledge of ecology. Many believed the best way to save the pandas was to cage them.
As a result, pandas were caged at any sign of decline, and suffered from terrible conditions. Because of pollution and destruction of their natural habitat, along with segregation caused by caging, reproduction of wild pandas was severely limited. In the s, however, several laws including gun control and the removal of resident humans from the reserves helped their chances of survival.
With these renewed efforts and improved conservation methods, wild pandas have started to increase in numbers in some areas, though they still are classified as a rare species. In , scientists reported that the number of pandas living in the wild may have been underestimated at about 1, Previous population surveys had used conventional methods to estimate the size of the wild panda population, but using a new method that analyzes DNA from panda droppings , scientists believe the wild population may be as large as 3, Furthermore, in response to this reclassification, the State Forestry Administration of China announced that they would not accordingly lower the conservation level for panda, and would instead reinforce the conservation efforts.
The giant panda is among the world's most adored and protected rare animals, and is one of the few in the world whose natural inhabitant status was able to gain a UNESCO World Heritage Site designation.
The Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries , located in the southwest province of Sichuan and covering seven natural reserves, were inscribed onto the World Heritage List in Not all conservationists agree that the money spent on conserving pandas is well spent.
Chris Packham has argued that the breeding of pandas in captivity is "pointless" because "there is not enough habitat left to sustain them". In , Earthwatch Institute , a global nonprofit that teams volunteers with scientists to conduct important environmental research, launched a program called "On the Trail of Giant Panda".
This program, based in the Wolong National Nature Reserve, allows volunteers to work up close with pandas cared for in captivity, and help them adapt to life in the wild, so that they may breed, and live longer and healthier lives. Pandas have been kept in zoos as early as the Western Han Dynasty in China, where the writer Sima Xiangru noted that the panda was the most treasured animal in the emperor's garden of exotic animals in the capital Chang'an present Xi'an.
Not until the s were pandas again recorded to have been exhibited in China's zoos. Chi Chi at the London Zoo became very popular. This influenced the World Wildlife Fund to use a panda as its symbol.
A New York Times article  outlined the economics of keeping pandas, which costs five times more than that of the next most expensive animal, an elephant. San Diego's contract with China was to expire in , but got a five-year extension at about half of the previous yearly cost. Cryptozoologists use Giant Pandas as an example of an animal recently discovered by science.
Skeptical cryptozoologist Joe Nickell , notes that since Giant Pandas were known to local people, they qualify as cryptids. Also, fossil evidence shows that pandas were once widespread, including the two million year old skull of Ailuropoda microta .
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Panda disambiguation , Panda Bear musician , and Giant panda disambiguation.
David , . Giant pandas around the world. List of giant pandas. Retrieved 5 September Bulletin des Nouvelles Archives du Muséum.
Animals of the rain forest illustrated ed. University of California Press. Archived from the original on 7 January Retrieved 8 August Retrieved 7 November Archived from the original on 4 July Retrieved 22 July Archived from the original on 2 January Retrieved 14 February Retrieved 10 April Retrieved 9 August Archived from the original on 4 May Animal Kingdom, Volumes 90— Archived from the original on The Atlas of Endangered Animals: Wildlife Under Threat Around the World.
Retrieved 17 December Giant Panda Species Survival Plan. Archived from the original on 4 December His promotion of memory-enhancing products was ended by the intervention of the Federal Trade Commission which alleged that the claims made by Trudeau were false and programs involved would not enable users to achieve a " photographic memory ," as the advertising claimed.
Trudeau used research that Dr. Trudeau was selling automobiles at Neponset Lincoln Mercury in the Dorchester neighborhood of Boston in when he first met Van Masters. In addition to Natural Cures , Trudeau also hosted an infomercial that features the "Perfect Lift" non-surgical facelift.
In , Trudeau began airing another infomercial, for a product called Firmalift, with Leigh Valentine. His goal was to transform billiards into a "major league" sport with aggressive promotion and the largest purses ever offered.
Winners were assured that they would receive their prizes in small installments, but most were never paid. The Reno fiasco marked the demise not only of IPT, but of professional pool competitions as a whole. As one commentator put it, "The pool hustler wasn't murdered by any single suspect, but the last man holding the knife was Kevin Trudeau.
In connection with his promotional activities he has had a felony conviction and has been an unsuccessful defendant in several Federal Trade Commission FTC lawsuits. In these cases Trudeau signed a consent decree in which he did not plead guilty but did agree to stop making the claims and to pay a fine. Trudeau subsequently began to sell books, which are protected by the First Amendment.
Trudeau was convicted of fraud and larceny in the early s. The larceny he explains as a series of math errors compounded by the "mistake" of a bank official.
As for why the bank thought he was a doctor, that was just a simple misunderstanding, because he jokingly referred to himself as a "doctor in memory". He still can't quite believe he was prosecuted for the larceny charges.
Trudeau began working for Nutrition For Life, a multi-level marketing program, in the mids. In , his recruitment practices were cited by the states of Illinois and Michigan , as well as the U. Securities and Exchange Commission. Illinois sued Trudeau and Jules Leib, his partner, accusing them of operating an illegal pyramid scheme. Michigan forbade him from operating in the state. Callahan" was "studying quantum physics. In July , Trudeau entered into a stipulated preliminary injunction that prohibited him from continuing to make the challenged claims for Coral Calcium Supreme and Biotape.
In the summer of , the court found Trudeau in contempt of court for violating the preliminary injunction, because he had sent out a direct mail piece and produced an infomercial making prohibited claims. The court ordered Trudeau to cease all marketing for coral calcium products. He also agreed to a lifetime ban on promoting products using infomercials, but excluded restrictions to promote his books via infomercials. District Court for the District of Columbia seeking declaratory and injunctive relief.
Trudeau also filed a motion for preliminary injunction, which the court denied. The complaint charged that the FTC had retaliated against him for his criticism of the agency by issuing a press release that falsely characterized and intentionally and deliberately misrepresented the Final Order.
The FTC responded with a motion to dismiss the complaint for lack of subject-matter jurisdiction under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 12 b 1 , and for failure to state a claim for which relief can be granted under Rule 12 b 6.
The district court granted the FTC's motion to dismiss. First, the court concluded that it lacked subject-matter jurisdiction because the press release was not "a 'final agency action'" under "section of the [Administrative Procedure Act]", 5 U. Second, the court held, "in the alternative, that Trudeau's claims failed to state a viable cause of action as a matter of law. Trudeau later filed an appeal which was unsuccessful in reversing the court's ruling.
The temporary restraining order was replaced by a preliminary injunction. However, Trudeau lost a motion to have the Board send a "corrective letter" to the television stations and subsequently dropped all claims for monetary damages. The case is still in litigation.
The FTC filed a contempt of court action against Trudeau and the companies that market The Weight Loss Cure 'They' Don't Want You to Know About , alleging that Trudeau was in contempt of a court order by "deceptively claiming in his infomercials that the book being advertised establishes a weight-loss protocol that is 'easy' to follow.
When consumers buy the book, they find it describes a complex plan that requires intense dieting, daily injections of a prescribed drug that is not easily obtainable, and lifelong dietary restrictions. On November 19, , Trudeau was found in contempt of the court order for "patently false" claims in his weight loss book. District Court Judge Robert W. Gettleman ruled that Trudeau "clearly misrepresents in his advertisements the difficulty of the diet described in his book, and by doing so, he has misled thousands of consumers.
The court denied Trudeau's request to reconsider or stay this ruling on December 11 of the same year. On February 11, , Trudeau was arrested and appeared in U. District Court before Gettleman for criminal contempt of court after he "asked his supporters to email the federal judge overseeing a pending civil case brought against him by the Federal Trade Commission. That is, no one can touch him," Barrett said.
On November 28, , the U. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission issued warnings to companies selling human chorionic gonadotropin HCG as weight loss products as the claims are unsupported.
In February , the court-appointed receiver announced that a number of Trudeau's known assets, including a home in Ojai, California , would be auctioned, with proceeds to be applied toward unpaid fines and restitutions. Court officials informed GIN members that the club's business model "likely amounted to an illegal pyramid scheme", and that its relentlessly publicized group of 30 billionaire financial advisors known as the "GIN Council" did not exist.
GIN's remaining assets were later auctioned as well. In March , Trudeau was sentenced to 10 years in prison, an "unusually lengthy" term for a contempt conviction. In April , Guzman ordered that royalties payable to Trudeau from continuing sales of his books—now owned by a California company called Free is My Favorite LLC, which purchased the rights from Trudeau—be forwarded to a government-controlled trust and used for fine and restitution payments.
One common criticism by consumer groups is that Trudeau has had no medical training. Trudeau responds that by not having such training, he is not biased toward pharmaceutical companies and the FDA, and that medical doctors "are taught only how to write out prescriptions" for "poisons" and "cut out pieces of a person's anatomy.
Trudeau has been criticized for his inability to provide evidence to back up his claims. Although he recites anecdotes, he has never provided evidence evaluated by licensed medical practitioners.
In instances where Trudeau has been asked to provide proof, he has misinterpreted medical studies or cited dubious or fictitious studies.
For example, Trudeau cited a nonexistent year research study involving a natural cure for diabetes at the University of Calgary. In University of Calgary officials announced in a public statement that none of Trudeau's claims about the university's research were true, and that its attorneys had sent Trudeau a "cease and desist" letter, demanding that he stop associating himself with the school.
In August , the New York Consumer Protection Board warned consumers that Trudeau has used false claims of endorsements to promote his products, noting that the back cover of Natural Cures includes false endorsements. Further, the NYCPB states that Trudeau's television advrtisements "give the false impression that Tammy Faye Messner opposes chemotherapy in favor of the 'natural cures' in Trudeau's book.
The back cover includes the following quote from Dr. Herbert Ley , a former commissioner of the U. Food and Drug Administration who died three years before the book was written: What the FDA is doing and what people think it's doing are as different as night and day.
Bradford, says that this quote does not constitute a false endorsement of the book by Ley, but rather is merely a statement that is in line with the purpose of the book. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 14 September Kevin Trudeau Trudeau in Retrieved 22 August State Bar of Wisconsin.
Archived from the original on 5 December Retrieved 5 December Archived from the original on Retrieved September 19, TV pitchman Trudeau found guilty of criminal contempt". Retrieved November 19, Archived from the original on March 16, Retrieved December 20, The Wall Street Journal via Cageyconsumer.
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A double-blind study" PDF. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Your Wish is your Command [Informercial]. Archived from the original PDF on Interview With Kevin Trudeau". Archived from the original on September 27, Retrieved April 26, Archived from the original on November 17, Retrieved December 21, Archived February 3, , at the Wayback Machine.