Counsel patients that antibacterial drugs including Zosyn should only be used to treat bacterial infections. But what most fail to realize that they should be mindful of your food intake to save your liver from severe health problems. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea CDAD has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Zosyn, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds.
Zosyn Dosage and Administration
Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Skin and Appendages —erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms DRESS , acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis AGEP , dermatitis exfoliative.
The following adverse reaction has also been reported for piperacillin for injection:. Skeletal —prolonged muscle relaxation [ see Drug Interactions 7. Post-marketing experience with Zosyn in pediatric patients suggests a similar safety profile to that seen in adults. Piperacillin may inactivate aminoglycosides by converting them to microbiologically inert amides.
When aminoglycosides are administered in conjunction with piperacillin to patients with end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis, the concentrations of the aminoglycosides especially tobramycin may be significantly reduced and should be monitored.
Sequential administration of Zosyn and tobramycin to patients with either normal renal function or mild to moderate renal impairment has been shown to modestly decrease serum concentrations of tobramycin but no dosage adjustment is considered necessary.
Zosyn and aminoglycosides should be reconstituted, diluted, and administered separately when concomitant therapy with aminoglycosides is indicated. Zosyn, which contains EDTA, is compatible with amikacin and gentamicin for simultaneous Y-site infusion in certain diluents and at specific concentrations.
Zosyn is not compatible with tobramycin for simultaneous Y-site infusion [ see Dosage and Administration 2. Probenecid should not be co-administered with Zosyn unless the benefit outweighs the risk.
Coagulation parameters should be tested more frequently and monitored regularly during simultaneous administration of high doses of heparin, oral anticoagulants, or other drugs that may affect the blood coagulation system or the thrombocyte function. Piperacillin when used concomitantly with vecuronium has been implicated in the prolongation of the neuromuscular blockade of vecuronium. Zosyn could produce the same phenomenon if given along with vecuronium.
Due to their similar mechanism of action, it is expected that the neuromuscular blockade produced by any of the non-depolarizing muscle relaxants could be prolonged in the presence of piperacillin. Monitor for adverse reactions related to neuromuscular blockade See package insert for vecuronium bromide.
Limited data suggests that co-administration of methotrexate and piperacillin may reduce the clearance of methotrexate due to competition for renal secretion.
The impact of tazobactam on the elimination of methotrexate has not been evaluated. If concurrent therapy is necessary, serum concentrations of methotrexate as well as the signs and symptoms of methotrexate toxicity should be frequently monitored.
It is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions be used. Piperacillin and tazobactam cross the placenta in humans. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown.
Piperacillin is excreted in human milk; tazobactam concentrations in human milk have not been studied. No information is available on the effects of piperacillin and tazobactam on the breast-fed child or on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for Zosyn and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from Zosyn or from the underlying maternal condition.
Safety and efficacy in pediatric patients less than 2 months of age have not been established [ see Clinical Pharmacology 12 and Dosage and Administration 2 ]. Patients over 65 years are not at an increased risk of developing adverse effects solely because of age. However, dosage should be adjusted in the presence of renal impairment [ see Dosage and Administration 2 ]. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Zosyn contains 65 mg 2. The geriatric population may respond with a blunted natriuresis to salt loading. This may be clinically important with regard to such diseases as congestive heart failure. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Dosage adjustment of Zosyn is not warranted in patients with hepatic cirrhosis [see Clinical Pharmacology As with other semisynthetic penicillins, piperacillin therapy has been associated with an increased incidence of fever and rash in cystic fibrosis patients.
The majority of those events experienced, including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, have also been reported with the usual recommended dosages.
Patients may experience neuromuscular excitability or convulsions if higher than recommended doses are given intravenously particularly in the presence of renal failure [ see Warnings and Precautions 5. Treatment should be supportive and symptomatic according the patient's clinical presentation. Excessive serum concentrations of either piperacillin or tazobactam may be reduced by hemodialysis.
Following a single 3. The chemical name of piperacillin sodium is sodium 2 S ,5 R ,6 R [ R 4-ethyl-2,3-dioxopiperazine-carboxamido phenylacetamido]-3,3-dimethyloxothiaazabicyclo[3. The chemical structure of piperacillin sodium is:.
Tazobactam sodium, a derivative of the penicillin nucleus, is a penicillanic acid sulfone. Its chemical name is sodium 2 S, 3 S, 5 R methyloxo 1 H -1,2,3-triazolylmethyl thiaazabicyclo[3.
The chemical structure of tazobactam sodium is:. Zosyn piperacillin and tazobactam for Injection, is a white to off-white sterile, cryodesiccated powder consisting of piperacillin and tazobactam as their sodium salts packaged in glass vials. The formulation also contains edetate disodium dihydrate EDTA and sodium citrate. The product also contains 0. The product also contains 1 mg of EDTA per vial.
Zosyn is an antibacterial drug [ see Microbiology Peak plasma concentrations of piperacillin and tazobactam are attained immediately after completion of an intravenous infusion of Zosyn. Piperacillin plasma concentrations, following a minute infusion of Zosyn, were similar to those attained when equivalent doses of piperacillin were administered alone.
Steady-state plasma concentrations of piperacillin and tazobactam were similar to those attained after the first dose due to the short half-lives of piperacillin and tazobactam. The protein binding of either piperacillin or tazobactam is unaffected by the presence of the other compound.
Protein binding of the tazobactam metabolite is negligible. Piperacillin and tazobactam are widely distributed into tissues and body fluids including intestinal mucosa, gallbladder, lung, female reproductive tissues uterus, ovary, and fallopian tube , interstitial fluid, and bile.
Distribution of piperacillin and tazobactam into cerebrospinal fluid is low in subjects with non-inflamed meninges, as with other penicillins see Table 6. Piperacillin is metabolized to a minor microbiologically active desethyl metabolite. Tazobactam is metabolized to a single metabolite that lacks pharmacological and antibacterial activities. Following single or multiple Zosyn doses to healthy subjects, the plasma half-life of piperacillin and of tazobactam ranged from 0.
Both piperacillin and tazobactam are eliminated via the kidney by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Piperacillin, tazobactam and desethyl piperacillin are also secreted into the bile. See Dosage and Administration 2 for specific recommendations for the treatment of patients with renal -impairment.
For dosage recommendations for patients undergoing hemodialysis [ see Dosage and Administration 2 ]. However, this difference does not warrant dosage adjustment of Zosyn due to hepatic cirrhosis.
Piperacillin and tazobactam pharmacokinetics were studied in pediatric patients 2 months of age and older. The clearance of both compounds is slower in the younger patients compared to older children and adults. In a population PK analysis, estimated clearance for 9 month-old to 12 year-old patients was comparable to adults, with a population mean SE value of 5. In patients younger than 2 months of age, clearance of piperacillin is slower compared to older children; however, it is not adequately characterized for dosing recommendations.
The population mean SE for piperacillin distribution volume is 0. This difference may be due to age-related changes in creatinine clearance. The effect of race on piperacillin and tazobactam was evaluated in healthy male volunteers.
The potential for pharmacokinetic drug interactions between Zosyn and aminoglycosides, probenecid, vancomycin, heparin, vecuronium, and methotrexate has been evaluated [ see Drug Interactions 7 ]. Piperacillin sodium exerts bactericidal activity by inhibiting septum formation and cell wall synthesis of susceptible bacteria.
In vitro , piperacillin is active against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Tazobactam sodium has little clinically relevant in vitro activity against bacteria due to its reduced affinity to penicillin-binding proteins. Bacteroides fragilis group B. The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown. Enterococcus faecalis ampicillin or penicillin-susceptible isolates only Staphylococcus epidermidis methicillin susceptible isolates only.
Streptococcus agalactiae 2 Streptococcus pneumoniae 2 penicillin-susceptible isolates only Streptococcus pyogenes 2 Viridans group streptococci 2. Citrobacter koseri Moraxella catarrhalis Morganella morganii Neisseria gonorrhoeae Proteus mirabilis Proteus vulgaris Serratia marcescens Providencia stuartii Providencia rettgeri Salmonella enterica.
Clostridium perfringens Bacteroides distasonis Prevotella melaninogenica. As is recommended with all antimicrobials, the results of in vitro susceptibility tests, when available, should be provided to the physician as periodic reports, which describe the susceptibility profile of nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens.
These reports should aid the physician in selecting the most effective antimicrobial. Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations MICs.
These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized procedure. Standardized procedures are based on a dilution method broth or agar or equivalent with standardized inoculum concentrations and standardized concentrations of piperacillin and tazobactam powders.
The MIC values obtained should be interpreted according to criteria provided in Table 7. Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The zone size provides an estimate of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds.
The zone size should be determined using a standardized test method 2,4 and requires the use of standardized inoculum concentrations. The disk diffusion interpreted criteria are provided in Table 7.
A report of S "Susceptible" indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentration at the infection site necessary to inhibit growth of the pathogen. A report of I "Intermediate" indicates that the results should be considered equivocal, and if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where high dosage of drug can be used.
This category also provides a buffer zone, which prevents small, uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of R "Resistant" indicates that the pathogen is not likely to be inhibited even if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentration usually achievable at the infection site; other therapy should be considered.
Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of quality controls to monitor and ensure the accuracy and precision of supplies and reagents used in the assay, and the techniques of the individuals performing the test procedures. Quality control bacteria are specific strains of bacteria with intrinsic biological properties relating to resistance mechanisms and their genetic expression within the microorganism; the specific strains used for microbiological quality control are not clinically significant.
Zosyn piperacillin and tazobactam for Injection are supplied as single-dose vials and pharmacy bulk vials in the following sizes:. Advise patients, their families, or caregivers that serious hypersensitivity reactions, including serious allergic cutaneous reactions, could occur that require immediate treatment.
According to WHO, it affects how we are able to cope with stress, interact with each other, work productively and decision making. Over time, there are increased cases of mental health disorders across the world. The stigma that is linked with seeking help for mental illnesses has left victims neglected. In all stages of our lives, mental health is critical.
It affects all aspects of our life and how we go about it. The liver is the marvel of our body. It is a vital organ responsible for secreting bile and breaking down the fats along with eliminating toxins from the body.
Weight loss is the prime concern for most people when they think about the food they consume. But what most fail to realize that they should be mindful of your food intake to save your liver from severe health problems.
Let us take a look at some common eating habits that are detrimental to the health of the liver. In our daily lives, we tend to adopt eating habits that gradually deteriorate our liver.
A full liver cleanse can be helpful in reversing the damage to some extent. You might not know what too much alcohol means as far as your liver health is concerned. From mild scarring to severe inflammation of the liver cells, an excessive intake of alcohol can cause a severely negative impact on the liver.
Moreover, if the negative impact of alcohol takes a toll on the liver, the ability to break down alcohol further reduces, thus, causing chronic damage. So, it is advisable to keep the consumption of alcohol at a moderate pace. A good rule of thumb is one standard drink for women and a maximum two for men per day. Diet , food , health , injury , liver , meals , nutrition , organs , Supplements.
In summer, most of us take our workouts a bit more seriously. Many of us have post workout routines that we feel are important for our fitness. From stretches and yoga to meditation and even meals or protein shakes, the things we do after our workouts are just as important as what we do during them.
The post-workout routine is filled with these mental and physical exercises and practices that remain critical to our fitness success. What can we add to our post-workouts for better fitness and for stress relief? Surprisingly, one answer is blogging. Because it combines some of the mental tasks above with habitual practices that make your workouts more productive and help you keep track of the things you want and need to accomplish.
Starting a blog, choosing a domain and website host and designing your site are all pretty easy. Once you get going, blogging can be addictive just like exercise. How does post-workout blogging help improve your workouts?
Here are a few ways. Here is an interesting guest post by a good friend of Project Swole.